A Quick Guide to Mechanical Punch Press

Posted on May 18, 2021

When it comes to punching press, it is specialized in forming holes in metal parts although they look similar to typical press machines, sometimes the die sets of punch press can also be used to deform the metal parts in the desired manner like general press machines.

What Is Punch Press and Machine Press?

Mechanical punch press, which is also widely called mechanical punch pressing machine, is one type of punch press that is designed for cutting the desired shapes through the die sets. To further understand the press, first, we have to know what a punch press is. 

A punch press is one type of machine press. Typically, machine presses or forming presses deform and shape the desired profiles under hydraulic pressure. The universal cycle of the form pressing process begins with the work positioning work, which is regulated by one or more operators. Subsequently, the press machine will push the die or plate onto the targets under high pressure.
When it comes to punching press, it is specialized in forming holes in metal parts although they look similar to typical press machines, sometimes the die sets of punch press can also be used to deform the metal parts in the desired manner like general press machines.

Punch press holds the die and applies the pressure against the metal parts, then the die set can force and cut the holes efficiently. The die set typically consists of a pair of dies, which press together to form the holes or deform the parts. 

There are a variety of punch presses that come in small and manually manipulated form. They hold one simple die set or large and rigid CNC punch presses, which are equipped with multiple station turrets to employ a much complex and bigger die set. The ram where the punches are attached will move upward and downward in a vertical linear motion in order to press the punch into the die through the metals.

What Is Mechanical Punch Press?

Now we know what a punch press is. Punch press machines can be classified into mechanical, hydraulic, and servo motor types depending on the drive type.
A mechanical punch press is a large punch press machine. The primary mission of mechanical punch presses is to cut out certain shapes on sheet metal with the die just like general punch press machines. 

Mechanical punch presses are reliable and even critical for producing cuts with high precision. Mechanical punch press machines come into two different styles depending on the style of clutch or braking system, which include the conventional type, the full revolution clutch mechanical punch presses and the newer version, the part revolution type.

● Full revolution clutch punch press:

The classic and older version of the mechanical punch press needs a full revolution of the crankshaft to stop the operation. The full revolution clutch type is more dangerous and even illegal in some countries unless the pinch point is fully controlled. 

The mechanism of the braking system consists of a set of raised keys and a matching slot. The keys have to fall into the slots in order to stop the movements of the ram, the ram in full revolution type can only be stopped at the top dead center.

● Part revolution clutch punch press:

Modern mechanical punch presses are usually part revolution presses, which are manufactured with a braking system that is similar to one of the commercial trucks. The band-style brake expands as the air is applied, permitting the crankshaft to revolve. After the mechanism works, the air is bled. 

Subsequently, the clutch will open while the brakes will close, stopping the rotation of the ram in the mechanical punch press. These part revolution press machines and brake units are typically operated in a fail-safe mode. The dual air safety valve is also employed in the system.

Construction of Mechanical Punch Press

Following are the basic structure of mechanical punch presses.

● Frame:

Mechanical punch presses are large machine presses with C-type frames or bridge-type frames or more. The C-type press machines are equipped with hydraulic ram at the top typically while the portal frame is very similar to a complete circle where the ram is mounted at the center within the frame in order to prevent any deflection or distortion of the frame. 

These C-type press machines are equipped with a bedplate where the die bottom bolster is positioned and locked firmly with T-bolts. Generally, T-bolts slide in the T-slots on the plate, the slots are diagonally arranged. There is a center hole in the plate, which is big enough to accommodate another bush with a hole. The hole at the center of the bottom part permits the punched products to drop down.

● Tool: 

As for the tools of a mechanical punch press machine, the bottom part of the tool is clamped to the bedplate mentioned earlier while the top part of the tool is fixed on the sliding ram. Both top and bottom parts of the tool are driven by pillar and bush assemblies. The arrangement ensures the safety of the punching components. The top portion of the pressing tool butted against a sliding ram that accommodated and clamped with a suitable shank that has a particular diameter. 

The tool is typically located above the bedplate slightly by employing 2 blocks with the same dimensions. This is because the scraps, which are created during pressing operations, do not necessarily come out from the die at the same place. The scraps have to be removed horizontally from the parallels, or the accumulated scraps inside the tool will lead to significant damage to the equipment, as well as errors in operations.

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