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Posted on Nov 14, 2018
Ball bearings are a type of rolling bearing. There are balls (rollers) between the bearing races. The main purpose of ball bearings is to reduce rotational friction and support both radial and axial loads.
The effect of reducing friction and loads on the ball bearings is achieved by using at least three races to accommodate the balls, and therefore the load of the ball bearings can be transmitted through the balls.
In most applications, one race is stationary, while the other one is attached to the rotating assembly and the groove matching rates as well as the angular calculation. Ball bearings and roller bearings are two important circular bearings that can move in steady paces.
The rotation of one of the ball-bearing races causes the balls to rotate as well. Compared with two flat surfaces sliding, the friction coefficient of ball rolling is much lower. Ball bearings are a useful tool that helps the machine operate normally since they support axial movements. As a result, ball bearings are recognized as axial ball bearings in some cases.
The original concept of the ball bearings can be traced back to the middle ages in which the steel treatment was mature enough then and people can start to make ball bearings with refined steel as the basic essences.
One of the earliest versions of the ball bearings' design is rolling bearings, which is a wooden ball bearings' model that supports a rotating table. During the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci used ball bearings in the design of helicopters in the 16th century.
Later, many Europeans were devoted to the development of ball bearings' structures in mechanical design, with a view to smoothing the mechanical operation and reducing the friction of ball bearings operation.
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When it comes to modern ball bearings, the operation is much more complicated. During the operation, due to the small contact area between the ball, the race, and the groove, compared with other types of rolling bearings, ball bearings tend to have a lower load capacity. However, they can allow some deviations of the inner and outer races that the groove value, angular ratio, and radial angles are different.
Like other mechanical devices that generate friction and movement, ball bearings must have an appropriate lubrication mechanism to work properly, or the ball bearings may fail. Lubricants can achieve elastic hydrodynamic effects through oil or grease, and dry lubricated bearings can also be used at extreme temperatures during the ball bearings operation.
The situations and the corresponding usages and adoptions are based on other specifications such as the groove depth, angular angle, and radial variants.
If the ball bearings are expected to have their nominal life under maximum loading, a certain lubricant must be used. It must have a minimum dynamic viscosity of the material such as steel. Only in this way can the dynamic viscosity be proportional to the diameter of the ball bearings. The ball bearings' complexity could be observed.
The recommended dynamic viscosity of ball bearings will decrease to an appropriate value with the rotation frequency. The calculation of this value is very complicated but very critical. Professional engineers must set all the factors such as steel features, angular angles, viscosity, radial effects, etc correctly to make the equipment operate well. Together with all the other conditions well managed, ball bearings can be well coordinated.
Throughout history, the application of ball bearings is wide and extensive, especially in the days when steels were not very expensive. In the field of machine tools, there are many items that cannot work without the help of ball bearings devices. Ball bearings help a lot to the overall axial transmission and the angular values shall be tilted.
The spindle is one of the important components of modern machine tools. There are many types of spindles. The difference between these types is their drive mechanism and power system. Spindle grooves, tilt angular, and steel compositions are all very influential.
The spindles can be classified into belt-driven, motorized, gear-driven, and direct-driven according to the driven mechanisms. Among them, the direct-driven spindle has greater torque, which can activate the spindle faster and more accurately, while allowing a larger processing range.
Many designs and ball bearings' components in machinery need to cooperate with each other, such as the spindle angular tile, ball bearing groove, radial angularity, etc. Machine tools with direct-driven spindles are usually designed with larger steel bodies to accommodate larger and longer spindles to provide higher machining strength for the workpiece.
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