Electric Hydraulic Press – The Versatile Mechanical Machine

Posted on Dec 3, 2020

Electric Hydraulic Press

An electric hydraulic press is a kind of hydraulic press machine that uses a hydraulic cylinder to produce a compressive force. It functions by converting the mechanical energy of the power source (usually the power motor and engines) into liquid pressure energy.

Overview

An electric hydraulic press is a kind of hydraulic press machine that uses a hydraulic cylinder to produce a compressive force. It functions by converting the mechanical energy of the power source (usually the power motor and engines) into liquid pressure energy. There is a plate within the electric hydraulic press where the workpiece to be pressed is placed for pressing preparation.

Electric hydraulic presses are typically used for clinching, molding, forging, punching, blanking, deep drawing, and other kinds of metal forming operations. Electric hydraulic presses are very popular metal forming machines in the manufacturing industries as people rely on their ability to produce more intricately shaped metals. They are also very economical with materials. Due to the small size of the hydraulic press, it takes up relatively and significantly fewer spaces as opposed to mechanical presses of the same capabilities.


Advantages of Electric Hydraulic Press

There are a great many advantages to electric hydraulic presses:

1. Cost-saving: Electric hydraulic presses are significantly less costly than mechanical presses. In the event of a breakdown, the parts that require replacement are very inexpensive as opposed to other types of presses; the replacement process is very easy as well. Moreover, thanks to the adjustable pressure feature of these machines to avoid damaging the tools, electric hydraulic presses have substantially lower tool costs as well.

2. Overload Protection: Most electric hydraulic presses have built-in overload protection where the machine will never exceed the pressure set. When it is going to reach the limit, a relief valve will open to prevent overloading or weight damage.

3. Low noise: The hydraulic ram of an electric hydraulic press can be controlled, meaning that the noise level can be adjusted. An electric hydraulic press is also much quieter due to the fact that there are fewer moving parts comparing to a mechanical press.

4. Very Compact: A very well-known characteristic of an electric hydraulic press is that takes up very little floor space in a machine shop or factory. This is because electric hydraulic presses are able to generate a higher amount of pressure over a smaller area of the available surface.

5. Superb Control Flexibility: Electric hydraulic presses are able to perform a wide variety of jobs without limiting tool life. This is because they are designed to enable multi-action machining. What’s even better is that the release of force, ram force, direction, and speed can all be adjusted based on the requirements.

6. Versatility: Electric hydraulic presses are able to perform a wide myriad of applications easily. Here is a glimpse of the common ones: powered metal forming, press fits, bonding, straightening, transfer molding, shell reductions, etc.

:: Read More: What Is a Servo Hydraulic Press?


The Mechanism of Electric Hydraulic Press

An electric hydraulic press functions on the principle of Pascal’s law, meaning that the pressure change takes place throughout the entire confined fluid when pressure is applied to it. There is also a piston inside the electric hydraulic press that works like a pump that provides substantial mechanical force to a small area of the workpiece. There is a larger piston that creates a larger mechanical force.

Moreover, there is a plunger that is installed in the cylinder, and it is always pressed against the eccentric under the action of the spring. The eccentric is then driven to rotate to enable the reciprocation of the plunger so that the size of the sealing changes periodically.

Different Types of Electric Hydraulic Press

Some of the hydraulic pumps that are incorporated into the electric hydraulic system include the gear pump, vane pump, and plunger pump.

  • Gear Pump: A hydraulic press with a gear pump is small, affordable, less demanding on oil cleanliness, and typically has a relatively simpler structure. As the name implies, hydraulic press with gear pumps utilize gears, powered by an electrical motor, to carry out the intended tasks. However, this type of hydraulic press is known for being subject to unbalanced force, adverse wear, and leakage.
  • Vane Pump: This type of electric hydraulic press can come either with a single-acting or double-acting mechanism. This type of electric hydraulic press is known for uniform flow, stable operation, low noise, higher working pressure, and efficiency compared to gear presses. They are however more structurally complicated than gear presses.
  • Plunger Pump: This type of electric hydraulic press incorporates high-power hydraulic systems, and is mostly known for its high volumetric efficiency, low leakage, and is able to work under high pressure. Like vane hydraulic press, the construction is just as complicated. Also, the requirement for the accuracy of material processing and oil cleanliness is high, so is the price of the plunger hydraulic press.

Of course, there are other types of electric hydraulic presses like the screw presses, but they are by no means as common as the three types illustrated above.


Applications of Electric Hydraulic Presses

As mentioned previously, electric hydraulic presses serve many purposes, including compacting food and other consumables, making appliances, manufacturing electrical parts and car parts, building aircraft, making firearms and ammunition, and so on.

Other applications of electric hydraulic presses are very commonly seen in larger-scale industries, including wind turbine manufacturing, pulp, and paper manufacturing, wood products, and offshore and marine system. With that said, electric hydraulic presses are definitely not limited to only large-scale applications. Many mechanists, or even hobbyists, would have one of these compact machines sitting around in the workshop. As matter of fact, hydraulic presses are needed in pretty much all manufacturing industries and are the perfect representation of machine versatility.

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