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Posted on Mar 30, 202016
In the machine tool sector, spindle applications are important topics and grinding spindles are also a focused topic for buyers. As one of the critical components of modern machine tools, spindles are designed in a wide variety of forms which is basically based on the driving mechanisms as well as other power systems.
There are mainly belt driven, motorized, gear driven, direct driven, built in, etc. Compared with other driving mechanisms, direct drive spindles are designed with stronger torque power, faster and more accurate activation, while is with larger area coverage. Normally, a machine tool could contain several spindles, such as the headstock and tailstock spindles on a bench lathe machine, and the primary spindle is usually is the biggest one.
As a result, if the references to the spindle without further qualification imply that the targeted subject is the primary spindle. Some machine tools that specialize in mass-volume quantitative production have a group of 2, 3, or even more primary spindles. These are called multi-spindle machines such as gang drills and screw machines. Although a bench lathe machine has more than one spindle (the primary one and the one installed inside the tailstock), it is not called a multi-spindle machine though. Moreover, machine tools with DD spindles are usually designed with larger machine body so that they can accommodate with the larger and longer spindle body, which eventually offer greater machining strength onto the work pieces. Some spindles are specifically designed for certain models or machine tool types, such as turning spindles, milling spindles, drilling spindles, and so on. Only with an appropriate installation of the spindle, can machine tools able to perform the designed capacity.
Aside the direct drive motors, examples of spindles include a wide variety of other designs. On a turning machine, be it wood lathe or metal lathe, the spindle is the heart component of the headstock case. On the other hand, in rotating-cutter woodworking machinery, the spindle is the part component on which shaped milling cutters are equipped for cutting features (such as profiles of rebates, beads, and curves) into moldings and similar millwork. Similarly, in rotating-cutter metalworking machine tools, the spindle is the shaft to which the tool (that is, a drill bit or milling cutter) is attached to the machinery as just one part of the big picture(through a chuck). Varieties of spindles include grinding spindles, electric spindles, machine tool spindles, low-speed spindles, and high speed counterparts.
On the other hand, for belt-driven spindle, it is consisted of spindle and bearing shafts held within the spindle housing, and the belt-driven spindle is powered by an external motor rather than a in-built, nor did a shaft-driven connect via a belt-pulley system. With this design, the pulley is not as stable as the direct drive mechanism and thus the belt materials become one of the key variables concerning the machinery operation. Furthermore, the external motor that drives the belt-driven spindle may range from 12,000 RPM to 15,000 RPM. The average RPM limitation confines the performance of the belt-driven spindles just like the torque issues so that normally high end lathes, though the most practical match is belt-driven, but are installed with the in-built spindles for better torque and quick cutting.
If, say, compared with the built-in spindle, which is most well known for its fast speed performance, the most excellent capacity of the direct drive spindle is the torque that it can make, which is far more powerful than other spindle types. As a result, most direct drive spindles are capable of processing the heavy duty cutting tasks with prominent precision even if the machinery has been working for a long period of time. The great endurance performance of the heavy cutting capacity makes the DD spindle widely accepted by machine tool manufacturers on their high end models. In modern machine tool industry, a spindle is a rotational axis of the machine, which usually designed with a shaft at its center. The shaft itself is named a spindle, but also, in the market slang, the referring term (phrase) is often used metonymically to point at the entire rotating unit, including not only the shaft itself, but also its bearings and anything around (or attached to) to it (such as chuck, cylinder, etc.). In this point of view, a built-in spindle is one of the top-classed one that is self-motorized due to its electric-driven nature and is designed with the power unit close with the spindle case box. A machine tool may be installed with several different spindles, such as the headstock and tailstock spindles on a bench lathe, or primary spindle and secondary spindle on machining centers. The main spindle is usually the biggest one installed at the primary machining unit. Some machine tools that specialize in mass production model have a group of four, five, or even six more main spindles. These are called multi-spindle machine tools. For example, gang drills and many screw machines are multi-spindle machines that can process simultaneously. Although a bench lathe has more than one spindle, it is not called a multi-spindle machine.
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