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Posted on Oct 23, 2019
In the field of machine tools, there are a variety of spindle designs, which are developed for various machining needs. The spindle is a mechanical rotation shaft, and usually has a central shaft. This shaft can be called the spindle, but on the market, the term “spindle” is usually used to encompass the entire rotating unit, including the shaft, bearings and all surrounding components.
A variety of spindles can be installed on the machining center. The following are some popular models:
The direct driven spindle, which has a simple structure and fast fabrication with machineries, can be installed on heavy duty machining centers and some double column machine tools. Due to its high precision, low vibration, the same interface and easy to replace, this type of spindle maintenance is very convenient.
The direct driven spindle has lower manufacturing costs and assembly costs. The direct driven spindle can achieve high speed rotation easily and in a short time, and maintain good dynamic rotary accuracy.
For machines that require higher rigidity and higher dynamic rotation accuracy in radial and axial directions, belt driven spindles are the best choice. Many belt driven spindles can be modified slightly, so they are particularly suitable for multitasking machining centers.
The motorized spindle can easily reach high speed, and can be adjusted within the balancing grade G1 and keep low vibration. Due to the ease of modularization, manufacturers of machining centers can set up manufacturing models, and field operators can perform many modularization processes based on blueprints.
Most motorized spindles are noiseless and have high thermal stability. Despite its small size, the motorized spindle has high power and can be installed in a limited space. It is also called a built-in spindle because it can usually be installed in relatively small spindle housing on a machining center.
According to market demand, the design of the motorized spindle has a high dynamic rotary accuracy, which can ensure that the machine operator performs accurate cutting and boring.
Because the power comes from the built-in motor, the motorized spindle is also called an electric spindle. Due to its unique characteristics, the built-in spindle has become the most widely used spindle type in machining centers in the industrial field.
:: Read more : What is a Electric Spindle (built-in spindle, motorized spindle) and its applications?
For those who pursue lower production costs, gear driven spindles are an option. It has lower manufacturing costs and is easy to maintain. At the same time, it can exhibit high torque transmission capacity, which makes manufacturers who pursue compact manufacturing cannot ignore this type of spindle.
At the same time, due to the relatively simple composition of the gear driven spindle, which has stable mechanical properties, it can achieve high efficiency cutting. When using other types of spindles for machining, the cutting efficiency will become more complicated.
:: Read more : About Gear Spindle & Spindle Technology
On the other hand, a machine tool can have multiple spindles instead of just one spindle, such as the headstock and tailstock spindles on bench lathe and turning center. In this concept, the primary spindle is usually the largest spindle in machinery.
Some machine tools dedicated to mass production usually have a set of 4, 6 or more spindles. These machine tool models are called multi-spindle machine tools.
For example, gang drilling machines and many screw making machines are designed with equipping multiple spindles, so they can perform many different machining tasks.
However, such estimation scale is not always the same. For example, although a bench lathe or bench turning center is equipped with multiple spindles, it is not called a multi-spindle machine. Except for the primary spindle, the remaining spindles cannot be classified as X axis for machining due to their specific functions.
In summary, there are many types of spindles in the machining center, but the main purpose is to perform machining on the rotating head. Whether it is multiple spindle or single spindle, if spindles be correctly installed on the machining center to perform the machining task, even if the driving mechanism is different, the final output is always the same.
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