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Posted on Sep 22, 20201
A cylindrical grinder is a type of grinder that is used to shape the surface of a material. Although the name suggests otherwise, cylindrical grinders can work on a variety of shapes, not just cylinders. In fact, they can work with any object that has a central axis of rotation, such as an ellipse or a crankshaft. There are many uses for industrial cylindrical grinders. Maximum Advantage-Carolinas explains.
Cylindrical grinders are most often used to produce precise shapes and finishing materials with the highest surface quality and minimal roughness. During finishing operations, roller grinders remove very fine pieces of material from the surface to ensure very accurate end products.
Industries have produced many innovative products using cylindrical grinders. These grinders are used wherever there is a need for very precise metalworking, e.g. automotive, military, electrical engineering, and plumbing industries. Cylindrical grinders are very commonly used in the manufacturing and finishing of metal products such as rods, bearings, tubes, and bushings.
There are different types of cylindrical grinders such as outside diameter grinders, inside diameter grinders and centerless grinders. Each one has its own set of unique industrial applications.
The origins of the cylindrical grinder, like all other modern machine tools, stem from the experiments and inventions of John Wilkinson and later Henry Maudslay who built the first horizontal boring machine and the first motorized lathe respectively. The cylindrical grinder owes much of its development since the beginning of the industrial revolution, in particular the advent of reliable, inexpensive steel production and the subsequent improvement of the grinding wheel. The base of the modern cylindrical grinder was first built in the 1830s by two men working independently, Jonathan Bridges and James Wheaton. It is not clear which man first produced the machine, but both are closely related to the first historical appearance of the modern tool. It took another 40 years before further improvement and refinement of the tool occurred.
Brown & Sharpe in Providence, RI was one of the first developers to develop the Willcox & Gibbs sewing machine, one of the first precision machines used in the home. Joseph Brown believed that the handle and needle bars of a sewing machine must be made of hardened tool steel. It was this desire that led to their experiments with the construction of a cylindrical grinder. The first attempt was simply a small lathe with a grinding wheel attached to it. Subsequent attempts led to the cylindrical grinder presented at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 and a subsequent patent.
It should be noted that Brown & Sharpe cannot be credited exclusively with pioneering advances in roll grinding. Ambrose Webster, a resident of Waltham, Massachusetts, created a small grinder in 1860 that included all the improvements that Brown and Sharpe considered their own original invention. Moreover, the emphasis on precision, accuracy, and reliability was championed by Charles Norton.
Norton was a Brown & Sharpe employee who left the company to pursue his belief that a cylindrical grinder is not only a finishing tool, but can be the backbone of a machine shop. He founded the Norton Grinding Company where he continued to improve his cylindrical grinder to use faster revolutions and more precise grinding tolerances. He was recognized for his work on April 18, 1925, when he won the John Scott Medal and Premium for the invention of "high-power precision grinding equipment". These Norton standards were the status quo until roughly the middle of the 20th century.
The rest of the technological innovations used in the cylindrical grinder are nearly identical and somewhat entangled with the rest of the machine tools. The innovation of the last 70 years has been characterized by three waves of change. The first wave was the creation of numerical control by John T. Parsons in the 1940's. The US Air Force, seeking faster, cheaper and more efficient means of producing aircraft parts and tools, played a large role in the development of NC both politically and financially.
The first implementation of NC in machine tools took place in the 1950s and continued in the 1960s. The second wave of innovation in the 1970s and 1980s was marked by a huge demand for microcomputers used to run NC. The combination of computers marked the birth of computer numerical control, which once again revolutionized the capabilities of a cylindrical grinder. Now the machine was able to receive instructions from the computer that gave it precise directions for every possible dimension and dimension needed to produce the desired product.
It was a completely different working environment compared to mid-century production where the worker had to drive the machine at all times as to manipulate the work. The third wave of change came in the 1990s with the advent of the personal computer. The integration of the CNC and PC computer into one dynamic system allowed for even greater control of the production process, which did not require any human supervision
:: Read more : Cylindrical Grinding and Great Productivity
There are five different types of cylindrical grinding: OD (OD) grinding, ID (ID) grinding, plunge grinding, creep-feed grinding, and centerless grinding.
OD grinding is grinding that occurs on the outer surface of an object between the centers. Measures are end units with a point that allows the object to rotate. The grinding wheel is also rotated in the same direction when it contacts the workpiece. This effectively means that the two surfaces will move in opposite directions when they come into contact, allowing for smoother operation and less chance of jamming.
Identification grinding is grinding that occurs inside an object. The grinding wheel is always smaller than the width of the grinding hole. The item is held in place by a sleeve which also rotates the object in place. As with OD grinding, the wheel and workpiece rotated in opposite directions, creating reverse contact between the two grinding surfaces.
The form of grinding OD, however, the main difference is that the grinding wheel is in continuous contact with a single point of the workpiece rather than passing through the object.
Creep feed is a form of grinding in which the full depth of cut is removed in a single pass of the wheel. Successful application of this technique can reduce production time by 50%, but a frequently used grinder must be specifically designed for this purpose. This form occurs in both cylindrical and surface grinding.
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