Introduction to Cylindrical Grinding Machine

Posted on Dec 15, 2020

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Cylinderical Grinding Machine

The cylindrical grinding machines were first introduced by John Wilkinson, then later experimented further by Henry Maudslay who also built the horizontal boring machine. The development of cylindrical grinding machines was the byproduct of the industrial revolution because steel production was inexpensive at the time.

What Is a Cylindrical Grinding Machine

A cylindrical grinding machine, also known as the cylindrical grinder, is a type of grinding machine used for shaping the outer layer of an object. The cylindrical grinding machines can machine a variety of shapes surfaces, but given that the object must have a central axis of rotation, for example, a cylinder, ellipse, cam, crankshaft, and other shapes.  

There are essentially four elements that constitute a working cylindrical grinding machine:
a.) The workpiece must also be rotating constantly with the grinding wheel.
b.) The cylindrical grinding machine must be rotating constantly alongside the object.
c.) The grinding process must be performed in a unique “toward and away” motion when the grinding wheel is fed. 
d.) The object is positioned perpendicular to the grinder during the shaping process.

Most cylindrical grinding machines you see these days will adopt all four for these elements, with some employing at least three of the four elements.
 

The History of Cylindrical Grinding Machines

The cylindrical grinding machines were first introduced by John Wilkinson, then later experimented further by Henry Maudslay who also built the horizontal boring machine. The development of cylindrical grinding machines was the byproduct of the industrial revolution because steel production was inexpensive at the time.

The cylinder grinding wheels were first built by Jonathan Bridges and James Wheaton, who worked on the project independently in the 1830s. It was unclear who first completed the machine, but both were indispensable for the primary appearance and the later development of the machine tool.

During the 1970s and 1980s, the computer numerical control (CNC) system was incorporated into these cylindrical grinders, marking a significant leap in the innovation and revolution of cylindrical grinding machines. And in the 1990s, with the booming of personal computers, both the CNC system and PC are integrated into the grinding wheels, enabling even more control over the manufacturing process with minimal human supervision.
 

:: Read More: Industrial Uses of Cylindrical Grinders

The Control Methods of Cylindrical Grinding Machine

There are three fundamental control methods as to how the user can interact with a cylindrical grinding machine – manual manipulation, numerical control (NC) with a punched card system, or computer numerical control (CNC) using an existing interface designed for that particular machine or by using a computer as an interface to communicate with the grinding machine. The former two methods have become rather obsolete as of current times, but the third one is largely used today. As a matter of fact, cylindrical grinding machines with CNC capability are some of the most state-of-the-art grinders that we can find today; they are technologically advanced, reliable, and efficient.
 

Types of Cylindrical Grinding Machines

Some of the different types of cylindrical grinding include:
 

Outside Diameter Grinding

In this type of grinding, the outside of an object between the centers is worked on. The centers basically act as an end unit that enables the rotation of the object. The cylindrical grinding machine also spins in the same direction as the object contacts the wheel. When the contact is made, the two surfaces move in opposite directions, allowing smoother workflow.
 

Inside Diameter Grinding

As the name suggests, this type of grinding takes place inside of an object. The width of the grinding wheel is always smaller than that of the hole being ground. A collet, which holds the object in place, also rotates the object. Just like outside diameter grinding, surfaces move in a reverse direction as the object comes into contact.
 

Plunge Grinding

This is actually a form of outside diameter grinding, but with the key difference that the grinding wheel shapes an object by making contact continuously on a single point of the object rather than traversing the object.
 

Creep Feed Grinding

Creep feed grinding is a type of grinding that removes a cut at a full depth in a single pass of the wheel. When performed properly, creep feed grinding is said to be capable of reducing manufacturing time by at least 50%. But this type of grinder typically needs to be designed for a specific purpose rather than a general-purpose grinder. This is used in both surface and cylindrical grinding.
 

Centerless Grinding

This type of cylindrical grinding has no collect, nor does it have centers to hold the object in place. Instead, a regulating wheel is positioned on the opposite end of the object to the grinding wheel. The object is held at the required height by a work rest but has no effect on its rotating speed. With the workpiece centered above the centerlines of the regulating and grinding wheel, the work blade is slightly angled towards the regulating wheel, which ensures that roundness can be achieved.
 

Application of Cylindrical Grinding Machine

Cylindrical grinding machines are most commonly used for manufacturing precise shapes and finishing materials, keeping roughness at the minimum while retaining superb surface quality. As a matter of fact, many innovative products in industries are manufactured thanks to a cylindrical grinding machine. Industries that require the manufacturing of precise metalwork all take advantage of the grinder, namely automotive, electrical military, and plumbing. They are also widely used for finished metal products such as bearings, tubes, bushings, and rods.

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