Lathe Spindle & Processing Performance

Posted on May 29, 2019

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Machine tool spindles are the critical rotational mechanical components that are used to hold and drive work pieces on lathe machines. The driving power of spindles varies from model to model, be it rubber belt, metal gear, motorized mechanism, hydraulic or pneumatic drives, and are available in a variety of configurations.

About Lathe Spindle

Machine tool spindles are the critical rotational mechanical components that are used to hold and drive work pieces on lathe machines. The driving power of spindles varies from model to model, be it rubber belt, metal gear, motorized mechanism, hydraulic or pneumatic drives, and are available in a variety of configurations.

Regarding the driving mechanism, there are many types. For instance, the cartridge assemblies are placed in a stationary area, and the angled spindles are designed to allow for specific angle or modifiable tool rotation. Some machine tool spindles are installed in a solid block or box-like shell.

Still others are bolted down via flanges or feet at the bottom part of the housing shell. Most machine tool spindles that fit the heads of cutting tools are designed with a taper or other standardized machine tool taper. Sometimes, multiple spindle heads are used to speed machining operations and in repetitive precision works, such as close-tolerance center holes.

Spindles for lathe machines

At the very beginning, lathe machines are installed with belt-drive spindles because the spindle design were simple then and there were no much options in the market. Belt-driven spindles features many good features and are easy to maintain due to its structural characteristics. Therefore, even now many turn mill machines manufacturers have much more spindle models to choose, belt-driven spindles are still a popular one.

On the other hand, motorized spindles are also popular in the field of high end, advanced lathe machines such as turning centers with power turret and some turn-mill centers with multiple spindles at both the front and back sides. For the motorized spindle, the built-in spindles, there are many convenient advantages such as high torque, no tooth drop issue, better stability, and so on and so forth.

However, with such set of spindle housing the housing of the spindle case design would be much complicated compared with the belt-driven counterparts. As a result, the design of spindle cases bases on not only functionality but also economic issues, and only with the balanced budget can buyers use them in an ideal manner.

Spindles for vertical lathes

A CNC vertical lathe is also called a CNC vertical turning machine, that is a machine tool that rotates a work piece on an axis of rotation to perform various machining operations such as cutting, knurling, sanding, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning; such machining are conducted with tools that are applied to the work piece and to create an object with symmetry with the axis which is driven by the primary spindle.

In usual circumstances, turning machines are categorized into two main types according to the way that clamp the work pieces (or the tools). Those are vertical lathe and the horizontal counterparts. These two occupy 99% of the lathe machine inventory.

For the former one, the work piece is clamped vertically and the cutting tool (and the whole set of the machining equipment) is thus installed the same direction, so that with this arrangement the machining is conducted vertically. This way the clamping is much more stern and fixed due to the gravity effect compared to the horizontal methodology and manufacturers of vertical turning machines usually made their vertical turning machines into great manufacturing facilities for users in a variety of industrial sectors that pursue for high precision, such as automotive industry, aerospace sector, sport equipment application, and other fields with larger size work pieces.

With the vertical clamping mechanism, the spindles of vertical turning lathes are also located behind the chuck, while some may be belt-driven, and some may be other types of driving mechanisms such as direct drive and gear spindles. Like other milling machines and machine centers, turning lathes can also be equipped with power tools as well as two magazines to boost its functionality and versatility, granting wider processing possibility to users.

Powered accessories

Power turret is a modern and standard accessory of many CNC turning machines, and as one of the most important and powerful accessories to the users of CNC lathes, Taiwanese suppliers aim at this business and have developed many well known power turret and power tool companies that supports the high-end demands form turning machine users all over the world market.

Many of these power turrets are driven by single motor with servo features, which can assure the best machining effects and save the optimal energy consumption thanks to the excellent features of the servo motor, and some of them are of brushless type; at the mean time, they can also provide great rigidity onto the work pieces, rendering an ideal cutting circumstances for onsite operators to achieve the great repeatability to the work pieces among the identical bunch of goods.

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