Machining Spindle and the Best Cutting Capacity

Posted on Mar 12, 2020

Machining Spindle and the Best Cutting Capacity

The machining spindle is a spindle used for machining, so the broad definition of the term can be turning spindle, milling spindle, grinding spindle, and materials. In another sense, there are other industry insiders who prefer to use this term for the spindle of a machining center. In the modern machine tool industry, the machine spindle is the rotating axis of the machine tool and is designed with a shaft at its center. The shaft itself is called the spindle, but in market slang, the referring terms (phrases) are also often used to refer to the entire rotating unit, including not only the shaft itself but also the shaft's bearings and anything around it. In this point of view, the built-in spindle is one of the top machine spindles. Because of its electric drive characteristics, it can be self- motorized and designed with a power unit close to the spindle case box.


The machine tool can be equipped with several different spindles, such as a spindle box and tailstock spindle on a bench lathe, or primary spindle and secondary spindle on machining centers. The spindle is usually the largest spindle installed on the main machining unit. In the market, the reference to "spindle" has no further limitation, and only refers to the spindle. Some machine tools dedicated to mass production models have a set of four, five, or even six spindles. These are called multi-spindle machine tools. For example, gang drills and many screw machines are multi-spindle machines that can process simultaneously. Although a bench lathe has more than one spindle, it is not called a multi-spindle machine.

If it is on a lathe (woodworking lathe and metal lathe), the machine spindle is the center of the spindle box. In addition, in a metalworking machine tool of a rotary cutting machine, such as a milling machine and a tapping machine, the machine spindle unit is a shaft to which a processing tool (ie, drill or milling cutter) is attached. There are many types of machining spindles, including electric spindles, grinding spindles, machine tool spindles, low-speed spindles, high-speed spindles.

:: Read more: How Spindles Determines Your Machining Quality


Speed Ranges

Regarding speed, RPM and range classification is ambiguous. In general, high-speed machine spindles are strictly used for machine tools specifically used in the field of metal processing, such as CNC milling machines. There are two types of high-speed spindles and each with a different design. First, the belt drives the spindle, which consists of the spindle and the bearing shaft held in the spindle box. The belt-driven spindle is powered by an external motor connected by a pulley system. Second, the external motor source: This design can be modified to produce higher power and maximum torque, ranging from 12,000 RPM to 15,000 RPM. The advantage is that speed switching is flexible and cost-effective. At the same time, the disadvantage is that the maximum speed is limited, which will eventually limit mechanical applications. Third, the integrated motor spindle: In this design, the main component of the machine spindle is the motor, which is stored inside the car body, and due to the limited space in the spindle housing, the internal motor will provide limited power and torque. Therefore, the frame design limits the processing capacity.



Here, for the built-in spindle (motorized spindle), the main application is not heavy-duty machining, but mainly for high-end machinings, such as 3C consumable processing, workpiece finishing, aerospace propeller cuttings, engine cylinder machining, sedan chassis processing, transmission joint grinding. For these applications, manufacturers demand common features that are fast and flexible during processing. Therefore, this critical key determines most of the application field that motorized spindle application areas. Compared with other spindle models, motorized spindles can achieve good processing quality through high-speed RPM and rapid switching between models. Although its torque performance can not be compared with the direct-drive spindle, its average performance is much more stable and stronger than the belt drive spindle model. For example, traditional CNC lathes can be equipped with belt-driven spindles, but they require higher machining requirements, such as turning and milling centers (turning centers). Because the workpiece is fixed on the chuck and clamped by the workpiece, the spindle is usually an electric spindle. The toughness of the cylinder may be higher, so if the main shaft is driven by a belt, the teeth on the belt are likely to encounter gear errors, leading to bad results.

:: Read more: A Comparison of Direct Drive Spindle and Belt-Driven Spindle


Spindles for Machining Centers

For machining centers, most machining centers on the market are equipped with electric spindles for multi-task machining. Because the built-in motor is installed inside the headstock, the multi-axis head can rotate more freely and work at a faster speed, which means that a large amount of bending and complex cutting is required. This particular built-in object is used for machining centers because many of them are designed with swing heads that can perform at least three-axis cutting, while some can perform four-axis or even five-axis machining. Therefore, for this particular type of industrial design, the built-in system of the cutting head is crucial.


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