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Posted on Sep 2, 2020
Milling is the most common form of machining, a material removal process that can create various features on parts by cutting off unwanted material. The cnc mill process requires a cnc mill machine, workpiece, fixtures and tools. The workpiece is a piece of preformed material fixed on a fixture, and the fixture itself is fixed on a platform inside the cnc mill machine. The cutter is a cutting tool with sharp teeth.
The cutter is also fixed on the cnc mill machine and rotates at a high speed. By feeding the workpiece into the rotating tool, the material is cut from the workpiece in the form of small fragments to form the desired shape.
A cnc mill is often used to produce parts that are not axially symmetrical and have many features, such as holes, grooves, pockets, and even three-dimensional surface contours. Parts that are fully manufactured by cnc mill often include a limited number of parts, such as parts for prototypes, such as custom fasteners or brackets. Another application of cnc mill is to make tools for other processes. For example, three-dimensional molds are usually ground. cnc mill is also often used as an auxiliary process to add or improve features on parts manufactured using different processes. Because cnc mill can provide high tolerances and surface finishes, it is very suitable for adding precision features to parts that have already formed a basic shape.
The cnc mill is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by bringing the workpiece to a rotating cnc mill cutter containing several cutting edges. A cnc mill machine essentially consists of a motorized spindle that clamps and rotates the cutter, and a reciprocating adjustable work table that clamps and feeds the workpiece.
A cnc mill machine are generally classified as vertical or horizontal. These machines are also classified as knee, arm, production or bed and planers. Most cnc mill machines have independent electric drive motors, cooling systems, variable spindle speeds and mechanically powered table feeds
KNEE-TYPE cnc mill machine
Knee cnc mill machines are characterized by a vertically adjustable work table based on a saddle supported on a knee.
Simple vertical machines are characterized by a spindle positioned vertically parallel to the face of the column and mounted in a sliding head that can be moved up and down manually or mechanically. Modern vertical cnc mill machines are designed in such a way that the entire head can also be rotated to enable work on angular surfaces,
The turret and swivel assembly is designed to perform precise cuts and can be rotated 360 ° on the base. Angled cuts to the horizontal plane can be made with precision by positioning the head at any desired angle within the 180-inch arc.
The column of an ordinary horizontal milling machine includes a drive motor and gear, and a fixed position horizontal milling machine spindle. An adjustable upper arm including one or more spindles supports the projecting elements from the top of the column. The arm and spindle brackets are used to stabilize long spindles.
The milling machine knee travels up or down the column along a rigid path. Heavy vertical positioning screw below the cutter. The milling machine is great for forming flat surfaces, cutting doves and keyways, forming and gouging cutters and reamers, cutting gears and so on. Many special operations can be performed with the accessories available for the use of the milling machine. The knee is used for lifting and lowering. The saddle rests on the knee and supports the worktable. The saddle slides in and out to the dovetail to control the cross feed of the worktable. The worktable moves to the right or left on the saddle to feed the workpiece through the cutter. The table can be manually operated or powered.
:: Read more : Vertical milling center, CNC vertical milling machine
The primary difference between the universal horizontal milling machine and the regular horizontal milling machine is the addition of a rotary table housing in between the table and the saddle of the universal machine. This permits the table to swing up to 45° in either direction for angular and helical milling operations. The universal machine can be fitted with various attachments such as the indexing fixture, rotary table, slotting and rack cutting attachments, and various special fixtures.
:: Read more : Horizontal milling is the art of efficient production
The slider type milling machine features a spindle mounted in a movable housing on a column to allow the cutter to be positioned forward or backward in a horizontal plane. Two popular shank milling machines are a universal milling machine and a spindle milling machine with a rotating cutting head.
The universal end milling machine is similar to the universal horizontal milling machine, with the difference that, as the name suggests, the spindle is mounted on a slide or a movable housing.
The cutter head containing the milling machine spindle is attached to the ram. The cutting head can be rotated from the vertical position of the spindle to the horizontal position of the spindle, or it can be clamped in any desired angular position between vertical and horizontal. Saddle and knee are manually driven for vertical and lateral adjustment, while the worktable can be manual or powered driven at the operator's choice.
The main benefit of using coolant or cutting oil is that it dissipates heat, ensuring longer life for the cutting edges of the teeth. The oil also lubricates the face of the cutter and flushes the chips away, reducing damage to the finish.
Machining oils are essentially water-based soluble oils, petroleum oils, and synthetic oils. Water-based coolants have excellent heat transfer properties; other oils provide a good surface finish. The composition of the cutting oils for the various metals. In general, ordinary coolant is sufficient for roughing. The finish requires a cutting oil with good lubricating properties to achieve a good finish on the workpiece. Plastics and cast iron are almost always machined dry.
Cutting oil or coolant should be routed via a coolant canister, pump system, or a cooling mist mixture to the point where the cutter contacts the workpiece. Regardless of method used, the cutting oil should be allowed to flow freely over the workpiece and cutter.
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