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Advanced CNC Surface Grinder Considerations
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Posted on Aug 4, 202010
Not to be confused with a milling machine, a grinder is a heavy-duty machine used to remove material from the surface of a workpiece. While milling machines have a rotating cutting tool that is placed on a stationary workpiece, the grinder has a rotating grinding wheel that is also placed on a stationary workpiece. There are several different types of grinders, each of which works differently.
Bench grinders have a table-like shape. They are usually equipped with two different grinding wheels: one for material removal and the other for finishing. They are called "bench grinders" because their grinding wheels are attached to the top of the workbench. As a result, bench grinders are easy and convenient for production workers to use.
Belt grinders are characterized by the use of a belt grinder. Like other grinders, they are designed to remove material from workpieces so that the workpieces are smaller and have a smoother and more desirable surface. In the case of belt grinding, the belt is coated with an abrasive, after which it reaches the surface of the workpiece until the desired results are obtained. Belt grinding is most commonly performed on metal workpieces, although it also handles components made of other materials.
The third type of grinder is the surface grinder. Surface grinders are unique because they have an adjustable head. The head on the surface grinder can be lowered into the workpiece. Once lowered, the head can then rotate forward and backward under the machine's grinding wheel.
While belt grinders are typically used for finishing processes, surface grinders are the most commonly used for material removal. Compared to other grinders, surface grinders are capable of removing significant amounts of material, making them desirable for such applications.
Gear grinders are designed specifically to remove material from shafts. By using grinding wheels, they can grind the center of the shaft with extreme precision.
A smaller and more basic type of grinder is a matrix grinder. Unlike the other machines mentioned here, die grinders are hand-held. They are connected to an air compressor that powers the machine's grinding wheel. If an air compressor is not used, the grinder will likely receive power from the electric motor.
Surface grinding machines for ceramics can be divided into (1) creep feed grinding and (2) reciprocating (feed speed) grinding. Reciprocating grinding operates at a relatively shallow depth of cut and high speeds (up to 40,000 mm / min) and requires specific driveline specifications such as high damping and acceleration. Creep grinding, on the other hand, works with a large depth of cut (eg, above 1mm). For this, it is necessary to work at a low and smooth feed rate, less than 60 mm / min. Due to the large depth of cut, the contact length is long, the number of cutting edges is large, and therefore the normal force acting between the wheel and the workpiece is relatively large. As a result, plane grinders for creep feed machining must have a high static stiffness in relation to these normal forces.
The drives of the grinding spindles of surface grinders require a smooth adjustment of the number of rotational speeds up to about 10,000 min - 1. Depending on the diameter of the grinding wheel, cutting speeds of about 400 m / s are obtained, thanks to which high-speed machining conditions are achieved. The spindle power of surface grinders depends on the area of application and can be up to 80 kW.
:: Read More : How Grinder Spindles Work? What Drives A Grinder Spindle?
The supply of coolant to the surface grinder must be a high flow coolant (400 l / min) and high coolant pressure (300 kPa) to ensure effective cooling of the workpiece and cleaning of the grinding wheel. In combination with the small particle size of the ceramic chips, the coolant cleaning system must also meet high demands. Since oil is a common coolant in ceramics processing, a completely sealed work area combined with an efficient oil mist suction is required to avoid the risk of fire or explosion.
In addition, plane grinders can be classified into three main types of structure: (1) column, (2) movable column, and (3) transverse structure. The design shows several features of the processing of ceramics and provides a treated surface of high quality. Thanks to the compact structure of the machine elements and the use of cast iron for the machine bed, a high-static, dynamic, and good thermal symmetrical behavior is attained. A special device for trueing and dressing of diamond grinding wheels allows the application of the rotary trueing stones.
The surface grinder in the design with a moving column is also suitable for processing ceramics. Additionally, the machine is equipped with an external device for grinding rolls. The concept is based on the specifications required for the use of CBN and diamond grinding wheels. The movable column travels on a central bed and carries the grinding spindle and the spindle motor. These machine elements made of polymer concrete ensure high stiffness and good damping.
The external feed drive controlled by the CNC axis is intended for grinding operations with creeping feed. The speed of rotation is adjustable up to 25 l / min. A special smoothing device mounted on the top of the grinding wheel enables continuous dressing (CD) during grinding. An intermediate dressing is also possible with a table straightener. In addition, the machine is equipped with complete measuring devices for recording information about the workpiece, tool and machine layout.
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