What Is a Cold Forging Hydraulic Press?

Posted on Sep 9, 2021

Cold Forging Hydraulic Press

A cold forging hydraulic press is a hydraulic-powered machine used in cold forging processes. The cold forging hydraulic presses are used primarily in industrial manufacturing settings.

A cold forging hydraulic press is a hydraulic-powered press machine that performs cold forging (often cold forming or cold working) operations. The cold forging process refers to the process in which a workpiece is shaped by means of pressing force at room temperature. By contrast, hot forging uses compression and heat to form materials. In industrial manufacturing settings, hydraulic press machines are used frequently. Other than hydraulic presses, mechanical press machines are also commonly used.

Cold Forging Hydraulic Press Construction

A press machine is necessary for both cold forging and hot forging operations. Its construction is simple. There is a bed (or a bolster) at the base of the machine. The bed is typically an unmovable element. On top of the press, there is a movable ram. The ram moves vertically from top to the bottom.

The dies come in two pieces: one on the ram and the other on the bed. The workpiece will be placed in the bottom die. When the ram descends, the workpiece is shaped by the die. The bottom die serves as the container of the workpiece. In a modern automated context, the bolster is movable to improve the feeding, adjusting, or replacing process.

In a conventional pressing process, the force is generated manually by the operator. There is a crank or a screw shaft to spin. The ram moves as the operator spin the crank. The ram goes back as the crank spins reversely. In an automated setting, the ram is controlled by a hydraulic system instead. The system is able to give greater force and better control to complete the operation.

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How does the Hydraulic System Work?

A cold forging hydraulic press uses a hydraulic cylinder to produce the force. In a hydraulic press machine, there are two cylinders connected to each other. These two cylinders contain an adequate quantity of hydraulic fluid. One cylinder is larger than the other. The piston in the larger cylinder drives the ram on the cold forging hydraulic press. The smaller one is called the plunger. When a force exerts on the plunger, the pressure transmits evenly in all directions and raises the ram.

The force applied on the plunger can be small, but the pressure acting on the plunger and the ram is the same. As a result, the smaller cylinder can move the ram that has a larger size and greater weight. The drawbacks of the cold forging hydraulic press include the risk of fluid leakage if the machine is poorly maintained or used improperly. In addition, there is heat concern. The machine’s temperature gets higher as it is used longer.

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Cold Forging Working Principle

The press forging process involves applying gradual pressure onto the workpiece. Because metal materials have malleability, when a piece of metal is pressed, it deforms and reshapes as a response to the pressing force. The cold forging process uses this physical property to reshape the workpiece. In order to forge the metal workpieces into the desired shape, the pressing force, the time, and the tools that are involved in this process have to be precisely controlled.

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Process Explained

The pressing tools used in a press forging operation are dies or molds. The workpiece is placed between the die/mold before the operation. Once the pressure is exerted, the metal workpiece will reshape in accordance with the figure of the die. There are usually two halves of the die set. In an open die press forging process, only half of the dies are used. In a closed die forging process, both of the halves are involved.

Whether it is an open or closed die operation, heat is not included. Cold forging refers specifically to the metalworking process that the workpiece is shaped at the ambient temperature. The metal pieces are shaped by means of bending, squeezing, drawing, or shearing in a cold press forging. The major factors in the process are time and pressure.

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There are several advantages of using a cold forging hydraulic press. First of all, the operation is easier since fewer elements are included; no heating or heat treatment is required. Cold forging can provide a better surface finish to the workpiece. What's more, the dimensional control is better and the contamination is minimized. The cold forging hydraulic press has greater versatility than a mechanical press. It is quiet and powerful, but with a compact size. In most cases, the hydraulic press is safer than the regular mechanical presses. It is ideal to process less costly, weaker metal pieces, and when precision and fine finish are required.

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