What is a spring shock absorber?

Posted on Aug 26, 2020

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Spring shock absorber

The primary function of a spring damper is to absorb and dissipate the kinetic energy of the impact to such an extent that the acceleration acting on the airframe is reduced to an acceptable level. Existing shock absorbers can be divided into two classes depending on the type of spring used: those using a full spring made of steel or rubber, and those using a liquid spring with gas or oil, or a mixture of both, which are generally referred to as pneumatic.

The high efficiency of the gearbox and the weight associated with the hydropneumatic shock absorber make it the preferred design for commercial transport. Based on the presented analytical procedure, algorithms were developed to determine the required stroke and length of the piston to meet the given design conditions, as well as the energy absorption capacity of the shock absorber.

:: Read more : Industrial Shock Absorbers – Types and Applications

 

Hydropneumatic shock absorber

The primary function of supporting weight in the oleo-pneumatic shocks they have high efficiency under dynamic conditions, both in terms of energy absorption and dispersion is provided by a compressed air and oil cylinder. Single-acting shock absorber, which is the most commonly used structure in commercial transport. This type of damper absorbs energy, forcing the oil chamber to counteract first dry air or nitrogen chambers, then compressing the gas and oil. During compression, oil and gas remain separate or are mixed depending on type of project. After the initial impact, the energy is dissipated as air pressure is forced oil back into the chamber through the jet holes. Although the compression hole may only be a hole in the orifice plate, most designs have a measurement pin going through it and varying the pin diameter the surface of the hole is varied. This variation is adjusted so that the column loading is fairly constant under dynamic loading. If this could be made constants, the efficiency of the gearbox would be 100 percent. In practice, this is never achieved, and efficiencies of 80 to 90 percent are more common. Since only the efficiency factor is interesting at the conceptual design stage, there are no additional ones a discussion of stylus design will be provided.

 

The features and basic operation of shock absorber

There are many different shock absorber designs available, but the basic operation of each is the same. Dampers are basically multi-chamber cylinders with one or more openings between the chambers. When an object hits the cylinder piston rod, the inner piston moves as it increases fluid pressure in the cylinder.The fluid flows through the holes, lowering the pressure and increasing the temperature. In this way, the kinetic energy of a moving object is converted into heat when it is stopped.

The efficiency and effectiveness of the canister depend almost entirely on the leakage path between the two sides of the cylinder. However, the ability to absorb energy depends on the size of the damper and how the piston returns to its rest position. Spring return shock absorbers are more compact and comfortable than models with external batteries, but do not have as much energy capacity. Battery shock absorbers have more hydraulic fluid and a larger surface area from which they radiate heat. Therefore, they can be cycled more often at maximum capacity than spring return models.

Hydroshocks are unregulated devices with multiple orifices, with holes spaced apart along the length of the cylinder. When the hydroshock is loaded, the internal piston moves along the cylinder, closing holes individually and reducing the effective area of ​​the orifices. Nozzle size and spacing are critical and are best achieved with sophisticated computer modeling. Otherwise, proper orificing may take several months of manual calculations and tests.

The main advantage of hydro-shocks is the almost perfect delay, while the main advantage is that it only works for one weight, speed and driving force. If the shock absorber is not properly selected for the application, high impact or deposition forces result.

 

Adjustable shock absorbers

The adjustable shock absorbers are equipped with a series of orifice holes along the entire length of the metal tube. The slotted dispensing tube, which fits over the stationary tube, can be rotated with the outer ring to adjust the total effective area and desired release speed. As the measuring tube is rotated towards the open position, shock provides maximum bore area and minimum resistance. Conversely, movement towards the closed position reduces the area of ​​the opening and increases resistance. This method of adjustment enables the handling of heavy weights or high driving forces with low viscosities.

Adjustable shock absorbers overcome the main disadvantage of hydro-shock by adapting the orification to non-standard input conditions. Therefore, a properly adjusted damper can produce the same almost perfect deceleration as a hydroshock.

The main advantage of the damper is the ability to cope with a wide range of input conditions; its main disadvantage is that it has to be manually adjusted every time the input condition changes.

Self-compensating shock absorbers are fixed orifice devices that do not require adjustment and cover part of the weight range of the regulated model. Self-compensating shocks smoothly slow moving loads, regardless of changes in energy absorption requirements, and have hydro hook tamper-proof features. In fact, self-compensating shocks show little variation in the reaction force with changes in mass and velocity. These forces will be slightly higher than a properly tuned adjustable shock, but still well within acceptable limits.

One important difference, however, is that a single, self-compensating shock cannot cover the full effective weight range of an adjustable shock. For instance, an adjustable shock may handle a very large weight range of 10 to 10,000 lb, while a self-compensating model may be limited to weights of 200 to 1,000 lb. Most users find this range acceptable since the ratio of maximum to minimum weight is rarely more than 5 to 1.

Unlike hydroshocks, self-compensating units do not have a uniform orifice diameter. Rather, the size and location of each orifice is designed for a predetermined range of initial conditions. Such designs compensate for changing weight, velocity, temperature, and fluid compressibility.

The main advantage of self-compensating shocks is that they provide good deceleration even though input conditions change. This has a secondary benefit because input data does not need to be as accurate as with hydroshocks. The only disadvantage is the possibility of slightly higher reaction forces.

:: Read more : What is the Shock absorber price?

 

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