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Posted on Nov 5, 20204
For bending materials, industrial companies mainly change the shape of metal workpieces such as sheet metal and pipes. Adding or removing other materials is not done during the actual bending process.
The bent objects can be light, like sheet metal, hollow like pipes, and to some extent solid like a solid. In addition to bending in time, it is also possible to bend a linear section, for example when bending sheets.
During bending, a force must act on the workpiece, the so-called Bending moment. In many cases, certain machines are used because they control the force more accurately and evenly than humans. This is especially true for large or solid items. There are different bending processes that fall into the main group of forming according to DIN 8580. Experts also refer to this process as bending forming.
In bending, the industry looks for permanent deformations, which in technical jargon are referred to as plastic, ie H. Permanent deformation. However, not every force exerted leads to such an outcome. To some extent, the materials only deform elastically.
The deformation is only temporary and the workpiece will return to its original state as soon as the force is released. The degree to which the workpiece no longer flexes elastically but plastically depends not only on the type of material, but also on its strength.
The maximum force that can be exerted without being permanently deformed is called the yield point. Therefore, the bending devices must exceed the yield point to obtain permanent deformation. At the molecular level, sheet metal and other metal materials are made up of crystal-like metal atoms, called a crystal structure.
If this structure changes beyond the yield point so that metal particles regularly arrange themselves assume a completely new position, they can no longer easily leave this position. Then the deformation persists.
In the case of inelastic deformation, however, the individual molecules of the crystal structure move closer together or away from one another. The individual atoms store the applied force in the form of mechanical energy, which they release again as soon as the external force is released. All particles return to their original position, i.e. H. The bending failed.
Bending often relates to metals, but not exclusively. There are many different materials that are of interest to the industry, for example:
Two of the most important alloys used in bending are steel and stainless steel. Steel consists mainly of iron, which also contains carbon. High degrees of purity are particularly important for stainless steel, and other materials such as titanium, chrome or nickel are also added.
When bending and hemming, bending companies often process steel or stainless steel materials, for example in the form of sheet metal. Bending sheet metal is one of the most common bending activities.
If you want to bend sheet metal or workpieces, you should know which metal you are dealing with. Every metal and alloy has its own yield strength and tensile strength that affect successful bending. Data of this type are summarized in complex tables in which the properties are given in N / mm².
If you want to know how much force it takes to bend a metal of a certain strength without having to do your own test runs, these tables should be looked at carefully. The data is very useful to ensure precise bending.
The load-bearing capacities can also be represented in so-called stress-strain curves. Scientists collect such data using tensile tests on standard parts, for example. However, they always only reflect statistical values. Semi-finished products as workpieces when bending.
Benders often bend sheet metal in various thicknesses and sizes. This also includes perforated plates and other types of sheet metal. Pipes also belong to the semi-finished products that can be optimized by bending, since pipes are often laid in non-linear ways.
The challenge with pipes is that the pipe cross-section changes from round to oval as soon as it is bent at one point. This effect can only be reduced by certain measures, but not completely eliminated. In addition to sheet metal and tubes, profiles, rods and wires can also be bent or folded.
Machines are often used to bend sheet metal. In the course of the Industry. Usual shapes when bending sheet metal. Sheet metal bending can result in a variety of shapes. These are often simple angles. Everything is possible in the range between 0 ° and 360 °. The right (90 °) and acute angles (0 ° to 90 °) are particularly common when bending.
Metal sheets bent in this way often serve as container or box components, for example for computer housings or fuse boxes. Specific names have been defined for the various forms of bending, e.g. A 90 ° angle on the edge of a sheet is called a standing seam. With the right technology and the right tools, round or wavy shapes can also be bent into sheet metal.
In addition to folding, bending can also include flanging. The bending department bends the edge of a sheet in such a way that a much greater rigidity is achieved, which allows several sheets to be joined together. Flaring is also a technique for making non-removable pipe connections in the automotive industry and in refrigeration.
However, bent metal pipes are also a valuable component in other industries, for example in pipe systems. They are used in aviation, construction and the food industry. Sheet Bending Machine: the most important machine! In most cases, bending in the manufacturing industry is done by bending (folding) or pivoting.
Roll bending also plays an important role here. All of these techniques use machines. This is the beauty of sheet bending machines!
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