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Steel casting is similar to iron casting. The two things share many common features. Iron casting, or cast iron, is a metalworking process that produces a group of iron-carbon alloys with carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its color when fractured with white cast iron and it has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight. Cast iron has graphite flakes. It will deflect a passing crack and will initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks. Ductile cast iron has spherical graphite nodules, which stop the crack from further progressing. The case of steel casting is slightly different. It is a specialized form of casting involving various types of steels. Steel castings are utilized when cast irons cannot deliver enough strength resistance as requested.
However, steel casting is still different from iron casting in some ways. First of all, steel is more difficult to cast than iron material. Steel has a higher melting point and greater shrinkage rate compared to other materials. So This feature with higher melting rate requests consideration during the design of molds. For beginners, attentions should be paid to the thickness of the mold cavities. Since thinner areas will cool quicker than the thicker areas and this is an important variety. This can create internal stress points that can lead to fracture issues. Still, molten steel is less fluid than molten iron. Another feature makes it more difficult to pour and fill intricate gaps in a mold cavity. Further, molten steel material is more likely to react with internal mold surfaces, and this makes more unpredictable results for the whole process.
There are many types of casting arts developed in the casting sector. Mineral casting is also considered polymer-bonded mineral casting. It is a construction and design material with enormous potential. During the operation of cast, selected minerals and a low proportion of epoxy resin-based binding agent form the basis for a high performance casting material for a wide range of technical and artistic applications.
The most obvious case of items that are steel castings include forging presses, gears, hydroelectric turbine wheels, valve bodies, railroad truck frames, pump casings, mining machinery, turbocharger turbines, marine equipment, and engine cylinder blocks. These are all familiar work piece objects that are once casted as steel casting items and later processed by some other processing machines such as milling machines, machining centers, or drilling machines. The steel casting objects are generally categorized into two main types. One is carbon steels and the other is alloy steels. Both cases are largely used in the machine tool industry as the important parts and components, because the features of their resistance make them easy to work with heavy duty cutting tasks.
Casting applications in the machine tool sector are introduced below. Many of the parts and components of machine tools such as CNC lathes, milling centers, machining centers, or drilling machines are made out of the casting methods. The casting process goes through rigid forging process in order to enhance the rigidity and the stability of the components and parts. The stability of the machine tools are thus ensured, especially in the case of large work piece machining.
In the case of turning machines, the so called five casting parts are all made out of casting methods as the preliminary method. They are the headstock case, base case, tailstock case, saddle case, and the speed changing case. These five parts may be different according to their manufacturers’ definition in some minor senses, yet all of them are casted iron or steel, and are forged parts that help to stabilize the whole machine tool operation process. After the preliminary casting, there are other following steps. Without special heat treatment of these five parts, and the finite element analysis (FEM), the processing will become a problem and the functionality of a turning machine will be severely affected. It is obvious that even though cast iron industry may be the very first stage regarding the formation of machine tool devices and parts, this very beginning step determines the whole thing and is inevitably the most important issue to the final result of the work pieces.
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