Chucks tools, also known as machine chuck, are a specialized type of clamp. Usually, they are used to hold a rotating object during the drilling or milling process. For many chucks tools, they often come in with jaws (also known as dogs) that are placed in a symmetrical pattern.
The tools use jaws to tighten up for holding the workpieces. Usually, with the help of a chuck key, the jaws can be tightened or loosened. However, some chucks tools can tighten and loosen without the aid of a chuck key, which is also known as keyless design. With that, operators can do it simply by hand force alone. Keyless designs provide a convenient way to finish chucking and unchucking work in a quick and easier way. However, the gripping force applied to the workpiece is lower. For cylindrical shanks, it is more like a problem than for hexagonal shanks.
For more information about chucks tools, please read the following content. The next paragraph is going to talk about different types of chucks tools.
There are basically six types of chucks tools, including jawed chucks, collet, special direct system (or SDS), magnetic chucks, electrostatic chucks, and vacuum chucks tools.
1. jawed chucks
There are many variations of jawed chucks, including self-centering jawed chucks, drill chucks, independent-jaw chucks tools, spiders, and other special jawed chucks. This kind of chucks tools have jaws, which can help to tighten or loosen while the workpieces are in the working process. Jawed chucks can be tightened or loosened with/without a key. For keyed chucks, the security can be assured; for keyless drill chucks, the efficiency of finishing the chucking and unchucking work is increased.
A collet is a type of chuck. It has a sleeve and is a subtype of chuck. Collet can form a collar around an object, so to create and exert a strong clamping/gripping force on the workpieces. It may be used to hold a workpiece or a tool.
3. special direct system (or SDS)
A Special direct system shank (or SDS shank) is applied with the SDS System. SDS shank is a kind of cylindrical shank that has indentations held by the chuck. Operators can press/insert the tool into the chuck. The tool will be locked in place. Not until a separate lock release is used, the tool will be fixed firmly. If operators attempt to use SDS, a tool that has the same shank size or diameter as chuck is a must; SDS-Plus, SDS-Top, and SDS-max are three standard sizes that are commonly used when operating SDS chucks.
4. magnetic chucks
This kind of chucks tools tends to be used when ferromagnetic workpieces need to be processed. Typically, a magnetic chuck consists of a permanent magnet face. Both Electromagnets and permanent magnets have contact with fixed ferrous plates or pole pieces. Permanent magnets chucks tools need no power to activate. Thus, the advantage is energy-saving. The other kind of magnetic chucks is called electric chuck. The benefit of it is quick activation. It has the quickest responding time among the three magnetic chucks tools. Compared to mechanical clamping, this kind of magnetic chuck tools has a greater, more consistent, more stable gripping/holding power. They are very suitable for heavy-duty.
5. electrostatic chucks
During the lithography process, electrostatic chucks are commonly used for holding silicon wafers. An electrostatic chuck is the combination of a metal base-plate and a thin dielectric layer. The reason for using the metal base-plate is because when it is maintained at a high-voltage (relative to the wafer), the electrostatic force can clamp the wafer and make it stable.
6. vacuum chucks tools
Vacuum chucks, as a type of chucks tools, are mainly used on non-ferrous materials. Copper, bronze, aluminium, plastics, and stone are all proper materials to operate on vacuum chucks. Usually, the air is going to be pumped from a cavity that is behind the object; and atmospheric pressure follows to provide the gripping force required.
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