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Dust collector is a part of dust collector system which is installed in factories.
In the system, it would contain a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system.
This system is used to do air pollution control. It enhances the quality of air release from the workplaces that might cause air pollution, such as factories plants, woodworking places, pharmaceutical, recycling, cement and rock factories, mine, and chemical related industries, and other industrial or commercial settings to meet environmental and workplace safety requirements.
Since the usage of dust collector system, the size of a dust collector could be extremely large, and there might be many in the same place. It depends on how much polluted air the collector needs to deal with.
With dust collector system, industrial or commercial settings are able to do air pollution control to meet environment and workplace safety requirements.
As for the dust collector itself, it is responsible for collect dusts from the air factories release.
When the dust collector system works, dust and particulates would be collected from the air though the filter to separate them from the air and capture them. Then, the purified air would be released into the air around the environment.
In conclusion, jobs dust collectors do are filtering the air, separating the dust and particulates, capture the dust and particulates, and releasing the purified air.
Dust collectors could be divided into the five types below:
● Inertial Separators
This kind of dust collectors separates dust and particles from air by using a combination of forces, such as centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial. The separated dusts would be temporarily stored into a hopper.
Inertial separators could be divided into three types:
1. Settling chambers
A settling chamber consists of a large box installed in the ductwork. They collect dusts and particulates by valleys in the ductwork which are designed for slowing down the air flow. Once the air flow is slowed down, the heavier content like dust and particulates would land into the valleys.
Since it is designed really simple, this kind of inertial separators could be built almost in any materials. However, it would take a lot of space to build and usually work in a low efficiency.
2. Baffle chambers
This kind of inertial separators uses a plate to suddenly change the air flow. Therefore, large-diameter particles would enter a dead air space and settle instead of following the air flow.
3. Centrifugal collectors
This kind of inertial separators uses cyclonic action to separate dust and particles from the air. The air contains dust and particles would enter the collector in a specific angle and be spun in a high speed.
The centrifugal force created by the circular flow would throw the dust and particles toward the wall of the cyclone. After striking the wall, these particles will fall into a hopper located under the centrifugal collector.
● Fabric Filter Baghouses
This kind of dust collectors are widely used and come in various designs due to their high efficiency.
When operating, fabric filter baghouses separate dust and particles from the air by filtration. The filters are usually made of felted cotton, synthetic, or glass-fiber material.
● Wet Scrubbers
This kind of dust collectors is special that it uses liquid to capture dusts and particles.
When operating, the dusts and particles would contact the scrubbing liquid (usually water).
When the air flow pass through, the dusts and particles would get wet and become heavier than the air. Thus, they would sink into the collector and be captured from the air.
The more the dusts and particles touch the liquid, the higher the efficiency of dedusting will be.
The types of wet scrubbers can be divided by pressure drop as follows:
◎ Low-energy scrubbers (0.5 to 2.5 inches water gauge - 124.4 to 621.9 Pa)
◎ Low- to medium-energy scrubbers (2.5 to 6 inches water gauge - 0.622 to 1.493 kPa)
◎ Medium- to high-energy scrubbers (6 to 15 inches water gauge - 1.493 to 3.731 kPa)
◎ High-energy scrubbers (greater than 15 inches water gauge - greater than 3.731 kPa)
The types of wet scrubbers can be various. However, all of them contain the three basic configurations as below:
◎ Gas-liquid contact
◎ Gas-liquid separation
● Unit Collectors
This kind of collector controls contamination at its source. Comparing with other types of collectors, they are smaller. However, they are self-contained with a fan and dust collector.
They are suitable for isolated, portable, or frequently moved dust-producing operations.
● Electrostatic Precipitators
This kind of dust collectors separates soot, ash, and dust particles from air exhausted from the factory by using static electricity.
When the particles in the air flow through an ionized field between the electrodes within a chamber, the static electricity would charge them with negative charge.
Once the particles are charged, they are a positively charged electrode where they are captured.
This kind of dust collector would be found at industrial power plants that burn fossil fuels for electricity.
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