Dust collection systems are air quality improvement systems used in industrial and commercial applications, namely manufacturing, production, agriculture, welding, metal fabrication, automotive, paint, construction, minerals manufacturing, warehouses, cement, lumber/wood, food and beverage, pharmaceutical, medical, glasswork, etc. They are used to improve the breathable air quality and safety of the workplace by implementing air filtration, which involves the basic steps of capture, convey and collect.
A dust collection system begins with the capture of dust. This is accomplished by adopting a dust collector device to catch dust in the air. In most cases, the dust collectors will have a port to which a duct can be attached directly.
Next, the dust caught by the dust collectors needs to be conveyed. This involves the use of a properly sized ducting system to maintain a consistent minimum air velocity needed to keep the dust in suspension for conveyance to the dust collectors. A dust system of inappropriate size can lead to the clogging of dust in the duct system.
Last, the dust must be collected. This can actually be accomplished by different means depending on the application and the dust being handled. For simpler methods, it can be done via a cyclonic separator, a basic pass-through filter, or an impingement baffle. For more complex methods, an electrostatic precipitator, a multistage baghouse, or a chemically treated wet scrubber may be used.
For smaller dust collection systems, air filtration is performed by using single-stage dust collectors to create suction. The waste material is sucked into an impeller and then a container such as a bag or canister. Air circulation inside a shop can be achieved as air passes through the filter to trap small particulates.
Larger dust collection systems typically utilize two-stage dust collectors which remove larger particles from fine dust using a pre-collection device (e.g., a baffled canister or cyclone) prior to drawing the air into the impeller. Air from these dust collector devices can then be filtered and circulated back into the workplace, or simply exhausted outdoors.
Moreover, dust collection systems are often a part of a larger air quality control configuration that usually has a large air filtration unit mounted to the ceiling of the designated premise. Workers on the premises may also be required to wear certain type of masks. Such air filtration systems are mostly designed to be capable of handling large volumes of air with larger particles (typically from 2 to 20 micrometers) suspended in the air.
As aforementioned, masks are normally complemented with these larger dust collection systems, which are available in various forms, ranging from simple cotton masks to respirators with tanked air. The type of mask workers are required to wear depends on the work environment and other related conditions. In industrial settings, rectangular or round ducts are often used to keep the dust from building up in processing equipment.
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