A balancing stand is a tool used to take the balance measurement of the rotating part of a machine, such as the rotor for rotary motors, turbines, disc brakes, drives, propellers, pumps and more. The balancing stands are also called the balancing machines. With a balancing machine, the location and amount of unbalanced mass on a rotor can be measured. The balance of a rotor is important. It is a part that is mounted to a machine with bearings on its rotating shaft. If the rotor is not balanced, the deflection of rotation leads to uneven wear of parts and the machine is hence not able to give a good performance or cannot even function properly. Therefore, the balancing stand is used to make sure the balance of the rotor is fair and sound.
A balancing machine looks like a bicycle stand. There is a base with two columns on the two ends of the base. These two columns usually have the configuration of a triangle which looks like the letter A. On top of the columns, there is a rest. A rotor will be placed on the rest with the two rotor shaft ends. Each of the shaft rest consists of two moving wheels positioned side by side. With these wheels, a rotor can rotate on the balancing stand. The balancing assessment that is conducted with the rotor rotating is called dynamic balancing and therefore the balancing stands are also called dynamic balancing stands.
Dynamic balancing essentially refers to the ability of an object to stay balanced while it is in motion or is switching between positions. Though many of the balancing stands have the fixed specification, some of the balancing machines have the adjustable base. The widths of the machine can be adjusted to become wider or narrower. With the width's adjustability, rotors with different length can be assessed on one balancing stand. There are sensors on the wheels to detect the vibration of the assessed part.
The balance of a rotor should always be assessed by a balancing stand because the unbalance of the device cannot be visually identified. When a rotor is placed onto a balancing stand, it will be rotated by a drive system; it can be either a belt-drive or air-drive. As the rotor rotates on the stand, the sensors will detect the vibration level of the rotor. With the information, the amount of unbalance in the assessed part can be determined. The information gathered can not only detect the amount of unbalance but also locate the unbalance. To correct the unbalance of the part, weights will be removed or added onto the part to make it balance.
The unbalance of a moving part in a machine is always a concern. If a rotating part is not balanced, an unbalanced force will be generated as the part rotates. The unbalanced force is referred to as the unbalanced centrifugal force. The unbalanced centrifugal force is the main cause of vibration when a part rotates. The vibration will lead to a certain amount of noise on one hand; it will accelerate the wear of bearings on the other. The wear of bearings is going to result in malfunction and lower the performance of the machinery. Thus, balancing assessment is important to identify the unbalance of a rotating part. Besides the balancing stand to assess the dynamic balance of a part, there are also machines to assess the static balance of a part.
As the term static balance suggests, it is the balance measured when a part stays stationary. Static balancing refers to the ability of a stationary object to its balance. The static balance is achieved when a part has its center of gravity on the axis of rotation. A part with static balance stays stationary at a horizontal axis without a tendency to rotate because of the gravity force or the application of braking force. An object with static balance does not necessarily have dynamic balance. The static balance of a part can be assessed both vertically and horizontally.
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