Any device that causes fluid or gas movement can be referred to as a pump. It discharges fluid or gas, causing it to move down/up or out of a pipe. Most pumps use some kind of compression to displace the fluid or gas. This compression action sometimes requires the use of an electric motor to apply pressure to the fluid to expel it. The electric motor can be driven by multiple fuels as long as it has the necessary power to displace the fluid.
We can categorize Pumps into Dynamic and Positive Displacement Pumps. Let’s have a closer look at some of the most common sub-categories:
1. Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pipe used today. The mechanism is relatively simple, well-researched, and carefully tested. This type of pump is sturdy, efficient, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Whenever the pump is running, the fluid pressure will increase from the pump's inlet to its outlet. Changes in pressure will drive liquid throughout the system. This type of pump creates additional force by transferring mechanical power from the motor to the liquid on the entire rotating impeller. The liquid flow will enter the center of the impeller and flow out with its blades. Thereby, the centrifugal force increases the speed of the fluid and can also change energy such as kinetic energy into force.
2. Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps
These types of pumps include at least two additional impellers. Fundamentally speaking, each stage is a diversion pump. These phases are located in similar cases and installed on similar shafts. On a separate horizontal axis, a minimum of eight additional stages can be installed. Each stage raises the head by approximately equal amounts. Multi-stage pumps can also have a single suction on the first impeller or double suction. Various types of centrifugal pumps have been developed and used over time.
3. Vertical Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical centrifugal pumps are also called cantilever pumps. These pumps use a unique shaft and maintenance design because the bearing is outside the pit, so its volume is allowed to fall in the pit. This type of pump does not use a filling container to cover the shaft but uses a throttle bushing in its place. A parts washer is a good example of a common application of this pump.
4. Submersible Pumps
These pumps are sometimes called rainwater pumps, sewage pumps, and septic tank pumps. The applications of these pumps mainly include construction services, household, industrial, commercial, rural, municipal, and rainwater recycling applications. These pumps are easy to transfer rainwater, subsoil water, sewage, black water, gray water, rainwater, commercial waste, chemicals, well water, and food. The applications of these pipes are mainly included in different impellers, such as closed, convection, scroll, multi-stage, single-channel, cutter or grinder pumps. For different applications, there are many options to choose from, including high flow, low flow, low head, or high head.
Positive Displacement Pumps
1. Gear Pumps
These pumps are a kind of rotary positive displacement pump, which means that they will force a stable amount of liquid for each revolution. These pumps mechanically move liquid inside and outside the screen to perform non-irritating pumping actions. These pumps can pump with greater force and can effectively pump high thickness fluids.
The gear pump does not contain any valves that cause friction and high impeller speed losses. Therefore, the pump is suitable for handling thick liquids such as fuel and grease. These pumps are not suitable for driving solids and irritating liquids.
2. Peristaltic Pumps
Peristaltic pumps are also called tube pumps and peristaltic pumps. These belong to the group of positive displacement pumps. The applications of these pumps can be found in the chemical, food, and water treatment industries. It can stably measure and mix, and can also pump various liquids, such as toothpaste and various chemicals.
3. Diaphragm Pumps
Diaphragm pumps are also called pneumatic diaphragm pumps and pneumatic pumps. The applications of these pumps mainly include continuous applications in general factories, industry, and mining. Use diaphragm pumps where power is not available, otherwise, they will be used in unstable and flammable areas. These pumps are also used to transport chemicals, in food manufacturing, in underground coal mines, and others.
These pumps are responsive and include two diaphragms driven by condensed air. The air portion of the delivery valve alternately applies air toward the two diaphragms. Each diaphragm is equipped with a set of ball valves or check valves.
4. Piston Pumps
The piston pump is a kind of positive displacement pump, no matter how the high-pressure seal responds through the piston. These pumps are often used for irrigation water, so this is related to the classification of centrifugal pumps and positive displacement pumps. They are used in various buildings to simplify the movement of liquid materials. Pumps for housing and commercial use can treat water. The fire pump provides flush water for sprinklers and firefighters, and the booster pump provides clean water to the upper floors of the apartments.
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