Commercial Water Pump Guide

What Is a Commercial Water Pump?

Pumps consist of two main parts: the motor and the pump unit. A commercial water pump refers to pumps that are designed for applications such as domestic water supply, filtration tasks, cooling system, fuel injection, oil and gas pumping, just to name a few.

Fig. Commercial Water Pump, Walrus Pump

In the machining sector, pumps transfer cutting fluids and coolants in the working area. Therefore, when a manufacturer produces a machine tool, the pump is considered an essential component, not an optional component. The density of coolant and cutting fluid are the key factors for selecting a pump. Understanding the elements will help users make the right purchase decision.

Characteristics and Structure

Commercial water pumps move liquids through their mechanical design. They are typically operated by either reciprocating or rotary (centrifugal) mechanisms. By the way of discharge, they are classified into types such as positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps, and valveless pumps. That said, they are essentially categorized into two types: positive displacement and centrifugal pumps. Here is a video briefly explaining the differences between these two pump types.


Centrifugal Pump vs. Positive Displacement Pump

Positive Displacement Pump

This type creates a certain amount of liquid flow into the discharge pipe so that the fluid moves. It uses an expanding cavity on the suction side and decreasing cavity on the discharge side. With this setup, when the suction cavity expands, liquid flows into the pump. When the cavity squeezes, the liquid flows out from the discharge side. In each operation cycle, the amount of liquid is constant.
Since the positive displacement pump does not have a shutoff head, there is a certain risk when the pump is running. As the pump continues to work, the pressure in the discharge pipe increases. The pressure does not cease increasing until the pipe bursts. For safety reasons, manufacturers install a safety valve on the discharge side, which can be installed either internally or externally, to prevent over-pressurizing.

Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal pumps are another common commercial water pump type. It drives fluid with a centrifugal force. The centrifugal force is generated by the impeller sets inside the pump body. The impellers are mounted onto the drive shaft of the motor. The impellers rotate as the motor runs. Each impeller set represents a ‘stage’. Therefore, centrifugal pumps are also called multistage centrifugal pumps.


How Multistage Centrifugal Pumps Work, saVRee

The number of impellers determines the application of the pump. Generally speaking, commercial water pumps for domestic use do not require too much pressure. There are fewer impellers in the pumps accordingly. As for industrial purposes, it is not rare that the pump contains more than five stages in the body. The casing design and material change as well to accommodate particular pressure levels.

Where does the power come from?

In terms of the power supply, commercial water pumps operate by many power sources, such as manual operation, motors or engines, and even wind energy. These power sources are chosen based on the end application of the pump. Pumps for medical use apply small electrical motors while industrial pumps in a power plant use generators to transfer coolants in the machinery.


The structure of a pump is relatively simple compared to other mechanical parts in the machine tool field. However, they all require accuracy, durability, user-friendly design, and more to provide a better application quality. As an integral part of many mechanical processes, there is no denying that commercial water pumps will continue to play an important role across the board.


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