A submersible pump is a type of pump that is widely adopted for industrial, agricultural, commercial, or domestic usage. The body of submersible pump is immersed into the liquid, and the equipped motor may be hermetically sealed inside the pump casing or placed above floor. Among all types of pumps, it is the various advantages submersible pumps have, such as the long durability and ease of maintenance, that make this type perfect choices for different applications.
Due to the submersible nature, the material use, arrangement, and operating principles are more flexible than the general form of pumps. With the special features the submersible pumps have, they are suitable for relatively higher viscosity of liquids, and we will discuss about more details in the following sections.
For the main purpose of submersible pumps, each type is used to drain the excessive water out in order to maintain the optimal condition of the environments. These pumps can be applied for small scale like the basements in the houses, or large scale like sea water drainage. Depending on the method the pumps use, the submersible pumps can be categorized into two types, including ejector pumps and sump pumps.
When an ejector pump is used, the entire body of the pump is usually immersed into the liquid it deals with. As the name suggests, the ejector pumps eject waste water out after the area is filled with water. Ejector pumps cannot prevent the waste water from blocking the way where is supposed to be clear, but they are able to handle this problem after it occurs.
As the counterpart of the ejector pumps, the sump pumps do not eject the waste water out. Instead, they prevent the formation of puddles before more water flows indoors or other areas. Owning to the feature of this method, the sump pumps can be either immersed into or on the surface of water. For the purpose of protecting the target environments, sump pumps would be better choices.
Since the submersible pumps are designed to have the submersible feature, they are usually made of stainless steel or titanium. In addition to the rigid and stable properties these two materials have, the reason why they are the perfect materials for submersible pumps is the property of corrosion-resistance. In that these pumps are widely adopted for a variety of applications in different industries, it is possible for them to contact chemical substances like acids. In order to optimize the function and ensure the sufficient durability of these pumps, stainless steel or titanium would be preferable materials.
Depending on the operating principles the submersible pumps apply, the structures of them vary from one another. They can be divided into positive displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps. The main difference between these two types is how they facilitate the advancement of water, which would be discussed in the next section. Based on the operating principle, the positive displacement pump contains a piston that does the reciprocating movement to push water out, while the centrifugal pump uses the impellers to compress and discharge water.
As mentioned above, there are two types of submersible pumps, including positive displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps. With the variation of operating principle, the applications where each type is suitable for are different accordingly.
The key to operate a positive displacement pump is the piston equipped in the pump. This type sucks water as the piston rests backward, and discharge water out as the piston moves forward. Through the repetitive back and forth movements, the pressure of water is released and compressed, which facilitate the advancement of water.
Submersible positive displacement pumps are especially suitable for liquids with high viscosity, so they are often applied for the sewage systems, slurries, or waste oil disposal.
Unlike the positive displacement pump that moves water by the reciprocating movement of the piston, the centrifugal pump uses the impellers to advance water to the outlet. The flowing of water starts from the inlet on the center of pump, and it keeps moving as the drive shaft rotates. Once the water passes through one or more impellers, these parts would increase the water pressure until it is discharged.
In order to prevent large particles or solid substances from being stuck on the impellers, this type is suitable for low viscous liquids. This makes the submersible centrifugal pumps be widely applied for seawater transfer or irrigation in agricultural fields.
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