The suspension is the main component of any car because it absorbs vibrations caused by road conditions and sudden acceleration or deceleration. It includes tires, wheels, shock absorbers, and other connecting rods. It can handle not only bumps but also rotation and braking forces. This kind of motion control usually requires a smooth stop of the moving load. Rubber buffers, compression springs, and pneumatic shock absorbers can all be realized by absorbing energy. Buffers and springs store energy and release energy after compression, causing rebound. At the beginning of the stroke, any force acting in the cylinder is subject to high resistance from the fluid, and when the piston is retracted, the resistance is much less. However, none of these three items can dissipate energy evenly. A pneumatic shock absorber is needed to equally dissipate that energy.
The function of the pneumatic shock absorber is based on the basic principle of replacement. The diameter of the valve corresponding to the pressure generated inside the pneumatic shock absorber. When the suspension is compressed, air flows through the valve hole, and the speed of the piston determines the pressure generated in the suspension.
If the pressure generated is sufficient to compress the valve spring, the valve regulator will open and the diameter will increase. The inner piston and the outer piston move together, leaving a gap. It compresses the atmosphere to a pressure of 12 bar and sends it to the outer bottom. Because compression occurs in every cycle of suspension movement. Therefore, the pressure will remain for a long time until the vehicle is idling. The valve tightener adjusts the preload of the valve according to the vehicle specifications it implements.
There are two types of pneumatic shock absorbers, one is a fixed hole, the other is an adjustable hole. The fixed type is sometimes called the non-adjustable type, in which the hole is drilled along the inner cylinder wall at a distance determined by the manufacturer. Although they are generally cheaper, they are designed for the load range of a particular application and cannot be changed to meet the requirements of other applications.
In high-volume systems in which the precise operating conditions will not change dramatically over time, they are more economical. Up to 30 times the amount of non-adjustable styles, pneumatic shock absorbers with adjustable holes can handle several loads. Change them on the outside of the pneumatic shock absorber by rotating the dial. This puts a ring around the orifice to limit the scale of the opening. The degree of deceleration can be regulated by regulating the volume of fluid pushed into the orifice. The dial rotates 90° or 180° and is calibrated with a scale of 1 to 10. Generally, the higher the number, the stronger the impact resistance. It is usually adjusted by observing the energy absorption under different settings. During the entire stroke of the pneumatic shock absorber, the constant resistance of the load should be obvious.
Pneumatic shock absorbers can be used in many places. Applications include linear functions, as well as rotation, free fall, rolling, and sliding motions. There is no difference between mechanically, hydraulically, or pneumatically. A common cause of pneumatic shock absorbers is high-cycle automated machinery that uses rotational motion to save time and space.
In this case, the shock absorber should be placed near the pivot point to provide greater clearance in the work area. However, this arrangement is subject to high effective weight conditions due to the low speed of the shock absorber. Most of the kinetic energy involved comes from thrust rather than inertia. For such applications, please specify a pneumatic shock absorber designed for a speed range of ¼ to 2 ft/sec.
When selecting a pneumatic shock absorber, the type of load to be stopped is the most significant aspect to remember. Simple inertial loads, free fall loads, rotational loads, and loads that carry extra propulsion are the main types of loads found in shock absorber applications. The next two most relevant considerations in determining the size of a pneumatic shock absorber are load weight and velocity.
Also, the potential impact on the equipment, the number of impacts per unit time, and the surrounding environment must be considered, to correctly select the shock absorber. Application conditions include extreme temperature, load acceleration, maximum propulsion force applied to the load, and time limit applied to the equipment. The minimum and maximum cycle time and the time required for the pneumatic shock absorber to return to the extended position between strokes would be included in the time limit. A more significant factor is the distribution volume. If too many shocks have to be treated by the shock absorber in a given timeframe, it will overheat, resulting in decreased output and premature failure. Rapid cycling can heat the fluid, reducing its energy dissipation capability.
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