Motors

Today, in modern mechanics, motor is one of the major figure in the machinery sector. There are many kinds of motors such as linear motor, direct drive motor, and many other models. A direct drive motor could be any motor either rotary or linear motor, with the load connected directly to the motor, without any further mechanical transmission elements, i.e. gearboxes, belt, and pulley systems. That is, the motor directly drives the load in the mechanism.

Here we talk about two primary categories: rotary and linear. Torque motors, for instance, is a kind of rotary motors. Sometimes a rotary direct drive motors are also called torque motors due to their ability to emit high torques at low speeds, even when they are stalled. Regarding its design, torque motors are often brushless and are permanent magnet synchronous motors. Their design is usually frameless designs, which mean that they don’t include housing, bearings, or other feedback devices.

Moreover, there is the pancake motors. Within the same category, another type in the group of rotary direct drive motor is the pancake motor. Unlike the torque motors mentioned above, these motors are brushed DC motors in which the armature windings are printed on a set of insulating and non-magnetic materials.
 

Types of Motors

Today, in modern mechanics, motor is one of the major figure in the machinery sector. There are many kinds of motors such as linear motor, direct drive motor, and many other models. A direct drive motor could be any motor either rotary or linear motor, with the load connected directly to the motor, without any further mechanical transmission elements, i.e. gearboxes, belt, and pulley systems. That is, the motor directly drives the load in the mechanism. Here we talk about two primary categories: rotary and linear.

Torque motors

For instance, a torque motor is a kind of rotary motors. Sometimes a rotary direct drive motors are also called torque motors due to their ability to emit high torques at low speeds, even when they are stalled. Regarding its design, torque motors are often brushless and are permanent magnet synchronous motors. Their design is usually frameless designs, which mean that they don’t include housing, bearings, or other feedback devices. Moreover, there is the pancake motors. Within the same category, another type in the group of rotary direct drive motor is the pancake motor. Unlike the torque motors mentioned above, these motors are brushed DC motors in which the armature windings are printed on a set of insulating and non-magnetic materials.

In between design

The armature set is located between two stator sets that contain permanent magnets arranged with alternating north and south poles. At the same time, the magnetic flux runs along the length of the motor and current runs in a radial direction. This arrangement leads to the fact that the torque to be made around the motor’s axis. As a result, both pancake motors and torque motors are applied in different industrial fields as the two, though belong to rotary motor category, and are with some essential differences, with torque motors are widely applied in tape recorders and work with wheel type winding mechanism well, achieving smooth operation.

Other varieties

The other category, the linear direct drive motor, is often simply referred to as linear motors in the machine tool sectors. This category includes ironless and iron core variations, which depends on the structure of the frame component concerning the winding. For the ironless variety, there is a primary tendency that is made of windings embedded in an epoxy resin. On the other hand, the iron core subcategory has windings that are installed on an iron-laminated stack.

Linear DD Motor

Within the linear category, there is another distinguishing feature: flat or a tubular construction. For ironless flat linear motors, there is a flat magnet with a primary part, or forcer, who is consisted of coils mounted to an aluminum plate. These motors have brilliant velocity control but make comparatively small force than other motor designs. Another construction version within the ironless motors adopts two magnet tracks facing each other for better magnetic effects for the disc-effect operation. The 2nd primary component (the forcer) operates in between the magnet tracks. Therefore, these motors have no cogging, and can achieve very agile acceleration and deceleration ratios in the case.

Iron core

Meanwhile, for flat iron core linear motors, there are two kinds, be it slotted or slot-less design, while slotted iron core designs are more often seen in the market due to its practical values and reasonable costs. The 2nd part of a slotted iron core linear motor is composed of a back iron plate and an iron teeth set, around which the coils are tightly wound in order to prevent magnetic counter-wire effects. They have the greatest force competence, but they can experience significant cogging.

Contrary, slot-less designs of linear DD motors are considered to be a hybrid structure that integrates ironless and traditional slotted iron core structure. They have coils that are wound with no iron lamination but are installed to a back iron plate. The 2nd part is often contained in aluminum housing. These motors have less cogging and lower inertia than slotted iron core counterparts.

Tubular design

Among this category, there is another construction variation that contains the magnets within a cylindrical type of tube that houses the windings in a thrust block, which surrounds the tube. Similar to their flat counterparts, tubular linear motors can be made with or without iron in the 2nd part, so the primary benefit of a tubular linear motor is that its accurate symmetrical designs allows all the magnetic flux to be used for the generation of thrust force. It is these characteristics that make this type of DD motor perfectly useful for the servo robotic arm in the assembly line, leading to the optimal assemble and dissemble functionality if it is needed on the line.

Common advantages

DD motors are designed with the benefits that eliminate mechanical components that emit backlash issues and degrade positioning accuracy as well as the great repeatability. Be it linear or rotary, DD motors are widely used in the industry rather than household appliances and daily usages, such as robotic components, machine tools, defense industry, etc.

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