Milling operations can be divided into face milling and peripheral milling, based on where exactly on the workpiece the cut is being performed. Both operations involve the use of a rotary cutting tool known as a cutter to extract materials from the workpiece. The face cutter is disk-shaped, with cutting blades across the body and on the side. These cutters specialize in the cutting of larger planes. The blade face is wider and the cutter body is made of general tool steel, then embedded in high-speed steel or carbide blade. Face cutter milling is a procedure in which the cutting is positioned perpendicular to the workpiece. The cutter is usually face down to the top of the workpiece.
The diameter of the standard surface cutter is 16-630 mm. The diameter of the cutter should be selected according to the width and depth of the milling. Generally, the greater the depth and width before milling, the larger the cutter diameter. When roughing, the face cutter diameter is smaller; in finish milling, the cutter diameter is as large as possible to accommodate the entire machining width of the workpiece and reducethetool joint marks between two adjacent feeds. When using face cutters for milling of large parts, they use cutters with smaller diameters, which leaves plenty of room for improved productivity.
The general consensus is that 45-degree face cutters are better for general purpose face milling. This means that the cutting forces are better balanced so that the axial and radial forces are almost equal. Lowering the radial forces to be more balanced with the axial forces can not only improve the surface finish but is also more friendly to the spindle bearings. In addition, the entry and exit of the cut of 45-degree face cutters behave better - less shock, less tendency to break off, and the 45-degree blade is better for demanding cuts.
Plus, you get a better face milling surface finish, lower vibrations, balanced forces, and better entry geometry. 45-degree face mills are also less prone to vibration. However, disadvantages are a reduced maximum depth of cut due to the entering angle, and a larger body diameter which can cause clearance problems. The 90-degree version of the face cutter exerts a less axial force, approximately half as much. This can be an advantage for thin walls as applying too much force to the wall can lead to material vibration and other problems. This can also be an advantage when it is difficult or impossible to hold the parts firmly in the holder.
Another way to improve your milling process is to optimize your face milling strategy. When programming surface milling, the user must first consider how the face cutter drives into the workpiece. Typically, the cutter simply cuts directly into the workpiece. This cutting method is usually accompanied by a high impact noise because the cutter produces the thickest chips when removing the insert. Because the blade has a strong influence on the material of the workpiece, it often causes vibration and creates tensile stresses that shorten the tool life. A better way to feed is to use the rolling method, that is, without reducing the feed and cutting speed, the face cutter rolls into the workpiece. This means the cutter must rotate clockwise to ensure milling.
The workpiece should be brought to the face cutter so that the cutting pressure is lower, pressing the workpiece against the table when performing face milling operations. If possible, the edge of the workpiece should be aligned with the face cutter center as this will prevent slippages of the cutter on the workpiece. When you adjust the depth of cut, make sure that you bring to the workpiece only so far that it barely touches the face cutter. After you have performed some cutting with these initial settings, measure the workpiece. Before the face cutting process, make sure that the workpiece is placed in a way that the tool is almost touching it, only then you can proceed with the automatic feed.
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