When it comes to cutting operations, one should focus on the cutting tool and the tool holder too. The tool holder is almost equally as important as the cutting tool. It is the contact point between the cutting tool and the spindle. It has a major influence on the overall spindle performance. There are different mounting styles or standards that differ in regard to their interface. Whether it is a high-speed operation or heavy-duty machining task, different tool holder types might be suitable for you. In this article, we will talk about the basics of tool holders and the interfaces such as HSK, VDI, and BT.
A tool holder is an important connection between the machine tool spindle and the cutting tool. The choice and correct use of it is almost as important as the choice of the cutting tool. It is indispensable for the integrity of the connection with the machine spindle. It is essential that the tool is correctly inserted into the chuck and allowed to rotate in the cutting path with almost no jump.
Choosing the ideal tool holder is very important because the quality of the tool holder has a major impact on the results of the entire machining process. The most important requirements of tool holders are high-speed clamping force, as well as reduced vibration runout accuracy and balance quality.
Depending on the interface, the installation method varies. The most common systems are HSK tool holders, VDI mounts BT and the R8 style. Let's start with the basic construction of tool holders. All tool holders consist of 3 parts: a flange, a collet bag, and a taper. There is no power supply for static tools and no power supply for real-time equipment. When changing a tool, the taper is the part connected to the spindle. The flange is connected and fixed on the automatic tool changer, which moves the spindle and the tool changer.
The collet pocket faces different collet nuts and is the area where the collet insert is fixed. There are various magnetic tool holders around the cutting tool (machine tool), so it can be kept in one place intact, while many other processing tools can achieve maximum clearance from small to large. The most commonly used chuck-type magnetic tool holder in woodworking is the HSK tool holder. It consists of 3 main parts: the tool holder, the chuck, and the chuck nut. For ISO, SK, and BT tool holders, the fixed knob is the fourth part.
The function and application of the magnetic tool holder are different from those with open coolant flowing through the flange. Such models and brands (CAT, BT, HSK, etc.) are the best examples. Each has the ability to adapt to small-to-large changes in size. It is important to understand that each tool holder manufactured is tailored to its specific purpose.
Commonly used storage methods will help reduce unnecessary inventory and make the workshop more flexible, especially in response to short-term operations and emergencies. When the machine has different requirements for tool holders, it is difficult to transfer work in the workshop to solve productivity or maintenance issues. Try to create a workshop with a common machine interface so that tools can be easily moved from one machine to another.
For example, consider the use of CAT 50 knife holders and BT50 magnetic knife holders. They are interchangeable in the machine spindle, but not interchangeable in the automatic tool changer. Having a universal machine interface also means that the tool holder will not be obsolete when the machine leaves the workshop. In aerospace or auto parts manufacturing, it is not rare that hundreds of magnetic tool holders are thrown into the waste bin. Since they are not suitable for any other machines in the store, they are discarded.
It is very important to insert the tool correctly in the chuck and make it rotate in the cutting path with a little rebound. The ball bearing chuck nut of a magnetic tool holder helps to ensure that the chuck clamps the tool properly to avoid loss of tool efficiency and any possible offset of the clamping source. If you encounter a bouncing or machine crash, one of the most important things is to use the bouncing cutter shaft to recalibrate the spindle.
When replacing a tool, it is important to install the tool in an appropriate tool replacement jig to properly clean the magnetic tool holder. A torque wrench should be used to tighten the collet nut, as over-tightening or under-tightening may be dangerous to the machining operator, and slippage and vibration caused by the lack of uniform compressive force on the shaft will also negatively affect the tool and spindle.
When installing the shank into the chuck, it is important to insert the shank at least two centimeters into the chucks to avoid unbalance, vibration, slipping, or breakage. Ensure that the cutting edge of the magnetic tool holder is not covered by the collet, as it will damage the edge. Improper balancing tools will result in a poor material finish. Precise tool clamping increases the service life, reduces the noise and the possibility of spindle failure or damage. Don't forget that the calibration rod is a good tool to keep the spindle healthy after a movement or tool crash.
The maintenance of tool holders is very important, especially when using CNC machine tools, for many reasons! The rule of thumb to follow when using CNC machine tools is to check the tool holder and spindle after each use. This inspection should include disassembling the entire tool holder and cleaning the parts. The coolant used when operating the machine can leave residue on the components, which can cause serious adverse effects.
No single tool clamping method is suitable for all applications. Tool holders that are engineered to perform high-speed finishing operations will generally lack effective rigidity and strength. Rigidity and strength are effective when roughing raw castings. On the other hand, tool holders for roughing and heavy-duty machining usually lack balanced quality and therefore cannot run at high speeds in finishing operations.
The sturdy design and volume of the rough machining tool holder limit its ability to enter fine or deep machining parts. A tough workpiece requires the tool holder to have higher strength and rigidity. In addition, the damping capacity of the tool holder and the ability to transport coolant are also important. The use of inappropriate magnetic tool holders leads to dimensional errors and scrapped parts, excessive wear on the machine spindle, shorter tool life, and increased tool breakage.
In non-critical tasks, a cost-effective tool rack may produce satisfactory results. However, in operations requiring repeatable accuracy, especially in operations where scrapping expensive workpieces will reduce the profit margin of parts. The investment in the top-quality application-centric tool holder can provide low-cost insurance for such accidental losses.
There are many types of tool holders:
● Crankshaft: driven by an electric motor, responsible for the rotating mechanism of the machine tool
● Side knife holder: fix the cutting tool in place
● Boring head: fix the boring bar in place
● Tapping chuck: makes the operation in the thread run smoothly
● Empty adapter: can be customized for various applications
● End mill tool holder: used for milling, these tool holders hold the milling cutter in place
● Milling or drilling chuck: the location to accommodate tools related to drilling and milling
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