Metal processing laser cutter is a machine that uses laser technology to cut metal materials, and is usually used for industrial manufacturing purposes. Sometimes, laser cutting technology is also used by schools, small businesses and some amateurs. The laser cutting mechanism works by directing the output of a high-power laser through optics.
Laser optical systems and CNC control systems are used to guide the material or laser beam generation. Commercial lasers control movement through a CNC programming system and are used to cut metal materials into specific patterns.
Metal cutting has always been a practical and traditional way of metal processing. Since the beginning of the metal civilization, this processing method has existed and has been widely used for centuries.
Until the 20th century, scientists developed unconventional cutting methods by concentrating laser light and applying it to cutting hard materials. Thanks to the invention of the laser, cutting technology and quality have undergone positive changes in the industrial field.
In practical applications, commercial lasers use CNC programming to control the movement of the machine and cut the workpiece into specific patterns. That is to say, the laser cutting technology in metal processing is a cutting technology that uses a laser to slice a metal material.
Because laser cutting is guided by the output of a high-power laser, the most common way is through optics. Laser optics and CNC equipment are used to guide the workpiece or laser beam. Commercial lasers are equipped with motion control systems that follow CNC systems or G codes to cut metal materials into specific patterns. During the laser cutting process, the focused laser beam is concentrated at the workpiece, and the material is melted, burned, vaporized or blown away by the gas jet, and leaves an edge with a high-quality surface finish.
The laser beam generated has a few ways including stimulating a lasing material by electrical discharges or lamps within a closed container. In addition, when the laser material is excited, the light beam is internally reflected by the partial mirror until sufficient energy is obtained to escape in the form of monochromatic coherent optical flow.
Therefore, mirrors or optical fibers are often used to direct the coherent light to a lens that focuses the light on the work zone. The diameter of the narrowest part of the focused beam is usually less than 0.32 mm. In addition to this, depending on the thickness of the material, the width of KERF may be as small as 0.10 mm. In order to be able to start cutting from places other than the edge, a perforation must be made before each cut. Perforation usually involves a high-power pulsed laser beam that slowly perforates the material, for example, for 13 mm thick stainless steel, it takes about 5-15 seconds.
Three types of lasers are mainly used in the laser cutting machine. CO2 laser is suitable for cutting, boring and engraving processes. The neodymium and neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers are identical in style, but their uses are different.
In addition to the power source for laser cutting, the type of airflow also affects performance. Common variants of CO2 lasers include fast axial flow, slow axial flow, transverse flow, and slab. In a fast axial flow resonator, a mixture of carbon dioxide, helium and nitrogen is circulated at high speed through a turbine or blower to achieve the result. Transverse flow lasers circulate the gas mixture at a lower speed, requiring a simpler blower. Slab or diffusion cooled resonators have a static gas field and do not require pressurization or glassware, thereby saving the cost of replacing turbines and glassware.
The traditional metal cutting method requires actual and rigid contact between the cutting tool and the metal workpiece, so the wear of the cutting tool is an important issue that cannot be ignored, otherwise it will definitely affect performance.
For this reason, cutters and sharpeners are usually installed in manufacturing plants so that field operators can use them to dress their cutting tools in order to continue to complete the processing tasks. Such additional steps require time and resources such as grinding wheels, dressers, knives, cutting tools, etc.
As a result, with the laser cutting methodology, it is much more convenient for onsite operators to proceed with the working loads without the obstacles in the process, achieving the quickest and best cutting performance within a comparatively short period of time on the production lines. With the invention of laser technology, the manufacturing sector and industrial insiders like to apply this technology to their production lines due to many great advantages that are not possible to achieve by traditional metal working facilities.
In laser cutting, the on-site operator does not need to stop the machine and dress the tool, which can greatly shorten the entire processing time and get the best cutting performance. The advantages of laser technology cannot be realized by traditional metal processing equipment, so people in industrial field like to apply this technology to their production lines.
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