Silicon Wafer

Silicon wafer is a popular industrial item which involves silicon materials and the silicon wafer grinding procedure during the whole process. Silicon wafer is also called SIC wafer. Many high tech companies offers complete SIC wafer, substrate production line which can integrate crystal growth, crystal processing, and wafer processing, polishing, cleaning and testing within the production line, making the whole production process more efficient for the semiconductor lines.

Many suppliers offer commercial 4H and 6H SIC wafers with semi insulation and conductivity in on-axis or off-axis options, with the available size ranging from five plus five millimeters 2,ten plus ten millimeters 2, two inches, three inches, four inches and six inches. This range of lengths field breaks through certain key technologies such as defect suppression, seed crystal processing and rapid growth, and they can promote basic research and development related to silicon carbide epitaxy substances, as well as the semiconductor equipment on the manufacturing sites. 


Epitaxy Materials

Epitaxy refers to a type of crystal growth or material deposition by which new crystalline layers are formed with a well defined orientation with respect to the crystalline substrate. This new layers are called the epitaxial film or epitaxial layer as a slang term. The relative orientation of the epitaxial layer to the crystalline substrate is thus defined in terms of the orientation of the crystal lattice of each material and substance. In regard to the epitaxial growth, the new layer will be crystalline and will all have a single orientation relative to the substrate substances, while the amorphous growth or multi crystalline growth with random crystal orientation does not match to this criterion level. 

More importantly, one of the primary commercial applications of epitaxial growth is in the semiconductor industry. Semiconductor films are grown epitaxially on semiconductor substrate wafers for sure. In the case of epitaxial growth of a planar film atop a substrate wafer, indeed the epitaxial film's lattice is going to have a specific orientation which is relative to the substrate wafer's crystalline lattice. The example includes the 001 Miller index of the film aligning with the 001 index of the substrate. For the industrial usages in the simplest case of usages, the epitaxial layer can be a continuation of the same exact semiconductor compound, and this is referred to as homo epitaxy for professional term usages. Otherwise, the epitaxial layer will be composed of a different compound. The different compound situation is referred to as hetero epitaxy. 


Epitaxial Types

As the R&D of epitaxial matters have gained many progressions, there are several different types of epitaxy in the industry, and we will mention five of them in the present article for a simple illustration. The first one is the homo epitaxy, which is a kind of epitaxy which is performed with only one material. The only one material is a crystalline film, and it is grown on a substrate or film of the same material unit. This technology is adopted to grow a film which is more pure than the substrate and to fabricate layers which have different doping levels. In some academic literature, homo epitaxy is often abbreviated as homoepi for short of writing. 

The second type is the famous homotopotaxy, which is a industrial process that is similar to homoepitaxy, except that the thin film growth is not delimited to two dimensional growth only. Furthermore, here the substrate is the thin film material. After this one, here comes the third type, which is named heteroepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy is a type of epitaxy which is performed with materials that are different from each other. 

In the case of heteroepitaxy, a crystalline film grows on a crystalline substrate or film of a different material, and this technology is often utilized to grow crystalline films of materials for which crystals cannot otherwise be gained and to fabricate integrated crystalline layers of different materials. Industrial instances include silicon on sapphire, gallium nitride on sapphire, aluminum gallium indium phosphide on gallium arsenide or diamond or iridium, and graphene on hexagonal boron nitride. Although the terms used here may not be common in public eyes, these are the basic concepts in this sector. 

Aside from the three cases mentioned above, it is the heterotopotaxy, which is a process similar to heteroepitaxy, except the fact that thin film growth is not limited to two dimensional growths, and the substrate is similar only in structure to the thin film material substance. The fifth one of this list is the pendeo-epitaxy, which is a process in which the heteroepitaxial film is growing vertically and laterally at the same time as the development. In 2D crystal heterostructure case, the graphene nanoribbons is embedded in hexagonal boron nitride, which gives an example of pendeo-epitaxy case for the market. 

These are the many epitaxial applications and the SIC wafer subtract usages in the industrial usages, and the SIC wafer items are under enthusiastic development by many gigantic private companies all over the world. Now Taiwan, the US, China, and South Korea are the four competitors in this area. It is expected that with the further merging of technologies, the application of SIC wafers will be much broader in the industry. 

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