A lathe is also called a turning center and is a machine that rotates a workpiece on a rotating shaft to perform various processes. This machining is performed by tools applied to the workpiece to create objects symmetrical to the axis driven by the spindle.
Generally, lathes are divided into two main types according to the way they clamp the workpiece. These are vertical lathes and horizontal lathes. For the former, the workpiece is clamped vertically, so that the cutting tools are installed in the same direction for vertical machining. In this way, compared to the horizontal method, the clamping is more secure and fixed due to gravity, and manufacturers of vertical lathes usually turn vertical lathes into high-quality production equipment for users.
Automatic lathes are usually controlled by a CNC system or at least one NC system, which is a machine that can perform turning tasks without too much manual operation. The lathe can rotate the workpiece along the axis of rotation to perform various machining operations, such as cutting, knurling, grinding, drilling, deformation, face machining, and turning according to the programmed route from rough cutting to the proximal program.
Bench lathes are usually portable and easy for users to carry, which means that the key function of a bench lathe is its mobility. Bench lathes can be manual or CNC controlled, or NC programmed.
The lathe can rotate the workpiece along the rotation axis to perform various machining operations on the supportive bench, such as cutting, knurling, grinding, and turning. It is also easy to move to other locations for industrial use.
The horizontal lathe is the oldest turning model, which has been widely used in the industrial field. The horizontal feature makes the lathe easy to use and maintain, and its convenience and structural advantages, making it easier to adjust, are widely used in various fields. Therefore, for users, there is no better standard answer in the horizontal or vertical direction, but only the application field.
CNC lathe is a turning model controlled by a computer numerical control system. Compared with traditional manual and conventional CNC systems, it can handle various tasks with higher repeatability and accuracy. There are two types of CNC lathes, horizontal and vertical. The horizontal characteristics make the lathe easy to use and maintain and are widely used in various fields.
The CNC lathe for general purpose is a turning model. It is a traditional and conservative category that can handle most turning tasks with modest modifications made for users. It can be the most widely used in the industrial field. Therefore, this model has neither standards nor restrictions in terms of design and specifications. Generally speaking, either horizontal or vertical is acceptable, and the former is more popular in the industry.
CNC heavy-duty lathes are specially designed lathes with high torque capabilities that can be used for heavy cutting tasks. The structure of this type of lathe is mostly horizontal, driven by direct drive or gear drive spindle instead of traditional belt drive spindle. The horizontal characteristics make the lathe easy to use and maintain, and used for this specific purpose to better fix and clamp large workpieces.
The CNC lathe for performance purposes is a highly customized and innovative type of turning model. It can only handle narrow and concentrated turning tasks and allows users to make appropriate modifications. It can be applied in the industrial field and has been discussed before construction. Therefore, this model has neither standards nor restrictions in terms of design and specifications. It can be either horizontal or vertical, and power turrets are usually installed on this type of lathe.
A vertical lathe is also called a vertical turning center and is a rotating machine that rotates a workpiece mounted on a vertical axis of a column to perform various processes such as cutting, knurling, grinding, and drilling.
The machining process is conducted with a tool that is applied to the workpiece and creates objects symmetrical to the axis driven by the spindle. Under normal circumstances, lathes are divided into two main types according to the way of clamping the workpiece. These are vertical lathes and horizontal lathes.
Slant bed CNC lathe is a traditional and conservative turning model. It can handle most turning tasks with modest modifications made for users, but the slope is not good, which can avoid the chip problem. It can be the most widely used in the industrial field.
Therefore, there are no standards or restrictions regarding the design and specifications of the model. Because the bed is tilted, the chips caused by the cutting movement are easier to remove.
The high-speed lathe is a production model of a multi-task machine tool that can handle a variety of machining tasks with a significantly higher spindle speed, and the spindle speed should be at least higher than 20,000 rpm. In the case of European models, the speed may even exceed 35,000.
Initially, high-speed lathes were developed from traditional lathes in the middle of the 20th century. Since then, the development of this special type of lathe has been well applied in industry and can be used in the household field.
Conventional lathes are an ancient turning machine, which has high productivity and can handle multiple machining tasks in multiple ways. First, the conventional lathe was developed from the conventional manual processing of spinning and cutting art about 4,000 years ago.
In the early 20th century, the development of this particular type of lathe became very specific. Later, there was a computer program, and now even ordinary conventional lathes are equipped with the NC system.
The Swiss lathe is a specially designed lathe that provides extremely high standards of precision and accuracy. Swiss-type lathes use chucks and guide bushes to secure the workpiece. The collet is located behind the guide bush, and the tool is located in front of the guide bush. It usually remains stationary on the Z-axis.
To cut in the longitudinal direction of the part, the tool will move inward and the material itself will move back and forth along the z-axis. This action design allows all work to be done on the material near the guide bush. The material is hard, so it is very suitable for processing slender workpieces.
Turning and milling machines are also called CNC turning centers. It is a machine tool that has both turning and milling functions and rotates the workpiece on a rotary axis to perform various machining operations. For example, cutting, knurling, grinding, drilling, deforming, facing, and turning. This machining is performed by tools applied to the workpiece to create objects symmetrical to the axis driven by the spindle.
Turret type turn-mill center is also called a CNC turning center. It is a machine capable of both turning and milling functions with its power turret. The main shaft rotates the workpiece on a rotating shaft to perform various machining operations, such as cutting, knurling, grinding, drilling, deformation, finishing and turning.
The mentioned machining actions are conducted with the tool applied to the workpiece to create an object symmetrical to the spindle, which is driven by the spindle.
In the history of metal processing, it is well known that turning and milling machines such as lathes are the most classic design for processing the required workpieces with a rotating spindle. Although this model is quite old, it is still very useful. It is expected that in the metal processing industry, the use of lathes and other types of lathes will still be very popular.
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