5 Axis Vertical Machining Centers Guide

5 Axis Vertical Machining Centers

In the modern machining and engineering industry, a 5 axis vertical machining center is a highly developed CNC machine that can handle multiple vertical milling and even drilling tasks on a single workstation. The concept of a 5 axis vertical machining center originated from a vertical milling machine in the middle of the 20th century. Since then, the development of this particular type of machine has developed rapidly. The multi-axis machining center has been widely used in various industries and has made extensive contributions to industrial achievements.

Vertical milling is the process of removing material by advancing an automatic spinning tool into a workpiece. This processing method can be done in different directions. In addition to drilling as a side function, a 5 axis vertical machining center usually covers a wide variety of functions ranging from machining one single tiny part to achieving heavy and large material milling tasks.

Horizontal and Vertical

It’s similar to a high-speed vertical machining center. A high-speed horizontal machining center is an advanced technology. Due to the horizontal design, it can handle more complex cutting tasks. When it comes to machining centers in general, "high speed" means that the spindle speed (rpm) is higher than a certain standard. The standard is not specific in different countries. The standard may be different, and each industry may also have different requirements. For most Asian machining center models, high speed means the rpm is higher than 12,000, while in Western Europe, high speed is usually referred to as a speed higher than 30,000 rpm.

The 5 axes vertical machining center is a highly developed CNC machine that can handle many types of machining tasks. It evolved from milling machines with vertical alignment. Since its successful establishment, the development of this particular type of machine has made good progress in the industry. The multi-axis machining center is widely used in various industries and contributes a wide range of industrial achievements and commercial value to the aviation industry. 5 axis vertical machining centers are usually equipped with a series of auxiliary equipment, such as tool magazine, ATC (automatic tool changer), electric turret, CMM (coordinate measuring machine), multi-axis worktable, to make full use of vertical machining capabilities.

Vertical Machining

5 axis vertical machining centers are the CNC machine that uses an automatically rotating tool positioned vertically on one axis to remove material from a workpiece. The vertical alignment of the machining tool and the workpiece can be achieved in different axial directions. If equipped with a dual-row function for some cutting tasks, the cutting ability will be further improved. A swing head is used to perform the machining operations at multiple angles. These 5 axis vertical machining centers, which include four plus one and three plus two machining centers, are considered convenient.

Conventional machining centers are designed with at least three axes, namely x, y, and z. For vertical and horizontal models, either one can be equipped with additional axes to make the 5 axis machine, such as 5 axis machining center. For 5-axis frames, the table is an important mechanical variable. By designating two additional axes on the rotary table, the machining tool can process apart at two new working dimensions, thereby enabling possible cutting processes at multiple angles. It has the same structure as the four-plus one, all these belong to the CNC machine and they are under the control of the computer numerical control unit so that the synchronized action perfectly matches the target tolerance standard.

Vertical Machining by Gantry-style Machining Center

Nowadays, the five-axis gantry type milling machine is powerful enough to handle several machining processes, and there is quite a market. It uses a spinning tool to remove workpiece material by advancing the tool into the workpiece with better machining capabilities. 5-axis machining capability guarantees the machining ability in multiple directions. Processing workpieces in different directions allows a certain level of flexibility and versatility to the machine. In addition to turning, milling also covers a wide variety of operations and has a wide range, from a single tiny part to heavy and large-scale milling tasks on the production line. Similar to turning, milling is also one of the most commonly used machining methods, which can provide precise tolerances.

Industrial Applications

In the practical field, the 5 axis vertical machining centers used for cutting metal materials in the industrial field include motion control systems. The motion control system follows the pattern method of CNC programming and cuts the pattern onto the target material by vertical machining. In other words, the five-axis vertical technology in metal processing is a cutting technology that uses advanced machining tools to complete the cutting tasks of metal materials.


The design of 5 axis vertical structures for milling machine tools, such as 5 axis vertical machining centers and horizontal machining centers, is very helpful for multi-axis machining and has high repeatability. By designating the additional axes movement ability, the machining ability of the machine is further enhanced. This helps expand the processing capacity of the machining center and improve the quality of the end products.

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